The part of green roofs to the pressing environmental issues in urban countries is proven by much research to assist extenuate jobs like the urban heat island consequence, storm H2O overflow, thermic comfort ; energy ingestion, impairment of air and H2O quality every bit good as loss of home grounds. However, green roofs besides have a important function to the betterment of a socio-culture of a topographic point. A limited survey has been conducted particularly in a underdeveloped state like Malaysia therefore far. The aim of this paper is hence to reexamine the societal and cultural benefits of green roofs that have become an progressively popular architectural characteristic, looking at both the tendency overseas and in Malaysia
Terrace lodging, peculiarly in the dumbly populated country of Kuala Lumpur has long been inflicted with the deficiency of infinite. The increasing monetary value of the units due to set down scarceness in urban country every bit good as fiscal restriction of most place purchasers have brought about optimum batch size in most developments.
2.1 Resident & A ; Home
2.1.2 Housing Satisfaction and Well Being
As discussed above, the lodging transformation/adjustment/modification is closely linked to this theory. Alteration of the house is fundamentally because of the deficiency of satisfaction ensuing from the alterations in the demands of the dwellers against the bing house design.
In definition, housing/residential satisfaction is the contentment that one has or achieves of one ‘s demands or desires in a house. It has been an of import index for contrivers, designers, developers, and policymakers in many ways. Harmonizing to Djebuarni & A ; Al-Abed ( 2000 ) It is used as ( a ) forecaster of the person ‘s perceptual experiences of general ‘quality of life ‘ ( B ) an index of inchoate residential mobility ( degree Celsius ) an ad hoc appraising step on the success of developments constructed by private and public sectors, and ( vitamin D ) an assessment tool of occupants ‘ perceptual experiences of insufficiencies in their current lodging environment in order to better the position quo.
Items a ) & A ; vitamin D ) influence the grounds why this theory is incorporated in this survey. From observation, patio houses which utilize their rooftops for green country or for recreational intents are really rare and have non widely implemented. Therefore, to analyze satisfaction of the occupants is non feasible as non many occupants have used it. Therefore, a cardinal survey on acceptableness of this private green roof demands to be conducted first before farther researches are to be made.
There are many surveies abroad. Rossi ( 1955 ) for illustration posits that altering lodging demands and aspirations occur through the occupants ‘ life rhythm phases. This would take to residential dissatisfaction therefore migration. Therefore, migration is seen as to increase degree of residential satisfaction ( Wolpert, 1966 )
Resident ‘s judgements on residential conditions are fundamentally based on their demands and aspirations. It measures the difference between families ‘ existent and desired/aspired lodging and its vicinity state of affairss ( Galster, 1987 ) . Therefore, the absence of any ailments and a high grade of congruity between existent and coveted state of affairss implies satisfaction, frailty versa.
Housing satisfaction is considered as a dynamic procedure as postulated by Morris and Winter ( 1975, 1978 ) known as ‘housing shortages ‘ . They theorized that occupants judge their lodging conditions harmonizing to two types of norms, personal or cultural which may non co-occur. An incongruousness between the existent lodging satisfaction and lodging norms consequences in a lodging shortage, which in bend gives rise to residential dissatisfaction, taking to:
lodging accommodations which may be either in situ such as revising their lodging demands and aspirations in order to accommodate the incongruousness, or
Better their lodging conditions through remodeling, or travel to another topographic point and convey their lodging into conformance with their aspirations or demands.
However, the above require that the occupants should hold adequate information about alternate version chances and fiscal resources. Someempirical surveies have demonstrated that lodging shortage is a utile construct in explicating residential satisfaction and mobility behaviour ( Bruin & A ; Cook, 1997 ; Husna & A ; Nurizan, 1987 )
The predating reappraisal of surveies on residential satisfaction indicates that the satisfaction or dissatisfaction tend to change by lodging types, term of office, states and civilizations.
Further surveies may be required on the theory of acceptableness. The Technology Acceptability Model theorized by Fred Davis ( 1989 ) postulated on the demands for sensed usefulness and perceived ease-of-use of new engineering.
2.2 Theories on urban green space/nature
2.2.1 The demand for urban green space/nature
Nature influences much of our behaviour, ideas and feelings. Correa, C. ( 1989 ) highlighted the two most of import facet of life in the urban, i.e. the component of covered infinites and open-to-sky infinites, and secondly, the mutuality of these two factors.
The former is a cardinal significance in developing states with tropical climes where activities take topographic point outdoor. The survey in Bombay showed that the spacial system has a hierarchy, i.e. infinite for private usage ( cookery, kiping etc. ) , infinite for intimate contact ( front doorsill where for drama and confab ) , infinite for vicinity meets ( H2O tap country ) and infinite for the principle urban country ( community infinite ) . The 2nd factor is how these infinites are linked to each other, i.e. the deficiency of infinite in one class can be adjusted by supplying more infinite to the others )
Ahmad Hariza, H. et Al. ( 2006 ) findings showed that the deficiency of infinite in patio lodging resulted in privateness being negotiated, compromised or lost, even after alterations because of the deficiency of infinite available in the house. The neglect towards cultural and spiritual demands of the dwellers may caused negative long term effects and changed the life style of its dwellers which are against their coveted manner of life.
One of the ascertained standards missing in most intermediate patio lodging is the non handiness of accessible private green infinite. Former surveies on green infinite in residential locality had shown that it contributes positively the life quality and besides increases the occupants ‘ satisfaction with the lodging unit and its vicinity ( Hur, M et.al, 2009 ; Amerigo, 2002 ; Francescato, 2002 ; Lipsetz, 2000 ; Amerigo & A ; Aragones, 1997 ; Carvalho, George, & A ; Anthony, 1997 ; Marans, 1976 ) . There are besides theories on nature such as biophilia hypothesis on human biological bond with nature ( Wilson, E.O. ( 1984 ) . Surveies besides shown that nature can reconstruct wellness and better wellness therapeutically ( Kaplan & A ; Kaplan ( 1989 ) , Ulrich & A ; Parsons ( 1992 ) , Johnston & A ; Newton ( 1996 ) ) Green infinite besides let for out-of-door diversion, leisure and originative chases ( Dwyer et. Al ( 1994 ) , Peck et Al ( 1999 ) . However, the green infinite built-in capacity and potency in supplying a better life status for the terraced house occupants has yet to be through empirical observation studied here in Malaysia.
The current scenario of accessible private green infinite in the intermediate patio lodging unit is limited. The green infinite at the forepart of the house does n’t supply privateness and are largely paved and covered with auto porch. The backyard, o the other manus is frequently catered for other public-service corporations such as drying or wet kitchen. It is observed that many of the houses are extended to the boundary bound to provide for a larger indoor infinite. Due to this, many occupants attempt to make green infinite at their forepart balconies which is confined and with no privateness. The constricted spacial planning in most of the intermediate patio lodging has left the occupants with no entree to private green unfastened infinite for recreational intents outside the house.
Looking at the design of typical patio lodging, its roof signifier has ever been synonym with pitched clay/concrete tiles between two extended party walls. Underneath is a confined structural infinite providing chiefly for storage of mechanical points such as water-tank, -heater, -piping, electrical wiring etc. Even for a freshly built house, this concealed country is frequently left unattended. The infinite is hot and inhabitable during the twenty-four hours and frequently go the nesting point for plagues at dark. It besides poses a security jeopardy for housebreakings. The potency of the roof as a useable country to work out these issues every bit good as the issue of deficiency of private green unfastened infinite has yet to be exploited, particularly in the context of the many bing patio houses.
Green roof in this peculiar survey is limited to rooftops with flora on its level roof degree ( i.e. either minimum soil-covered ( extended green roof ) or provided with potted workss ) which is accessible as private green unfastened country for recreational intents.
2.2.2 Renewing Theories
2.2.3 Biophilia Theories
2.3 Concept of green roof
The construct of green roof went as far back as the hanging gardens of Babylon in the sixth Century BC. These gardens were constructed by Nebuchandrezzar II during the rebuilding of Babylon to comfort his married woman, Amytis, who missed her verdure place land. He developed a series of patios planted with trees, bushs, vines and shrubs on that overhung the patio edges ( Osmundson, 1999, Lim 2007 ) .
The green roof system today originated from the sod roofs of Iceland. The green motion started in the 1960 ‘s in Germany developed the modern versions of green roof engineering before it become popular to other states in Europe. The International Green Roof Association ( IGRA ) is a strong organisation based in Germany that provides a platform for the worldwide publicity and airing of ecological green roofs thoughts and has a comprehensive resource for green roof information ( Anon, 2009c ) . Similarly, the livingroofs.org, an independent resource from the UK besides provides utile information for those who wish to plan, put in or advance green roofs. Their aims are to foreground the benefits of green roofs every bit good as to analyze their pits-falls and jobs ( Anon. , 2009b ) .
In the United States, under the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design ( LEED ) enterprise ( Snodgrass, 2006 ) all of their edifices should include green roofs as a method of accomplishing a higher environmental evaluation which has now become an international benchmark.
In Asia, states like Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore have strongly supported the motion of green roofs. Singapore for illustration, since 1990 ‘s has actively facilitated the use of fresh level roofs as roof gardens. Its national planning authorization ( Urban Redevelopment Authority ) has actively reviewed development control guidelines to except the infinite used for sky-bridges, sky patios and communal unfastened marquees in roof gardens from overall gross floor country calculations and relaxed development parametric quantities to advance greater flexibleness in the design of sky gardens ( Urban Redevelopment Authority, 2003 )
Presents, widespread concern over the depletion of non-renewable energy beginnings and planetary heating has provoked designers to be more sensitive on their attack towards planing edifices. One such effort is by the integrating of workss as portion of a roof system which ab initio emerged during the coming of green motion in the 1960 ‘s, and has today going an progressively popular characteristic for green edifices throughout the universe.
Green roof or besides known as roof garden, eco-roof, living roof or vegetated roof is defined as a roof or dais which is partly or wholly covered with flora and dirt or turning medium. ( Anon, 2009a ; Dunnett and Kingsbury, 2004 ) It is a promising and feasible solution to get the better of the environmental issues in the growth and populated urban country such as Kuala Lumpur where verdure has going scarce and are being bit by bit replaced by edifice and substructure footmarks.
Bing good established in European states particularly in Germany and Switzerland, and deriving foothold in other states like Australia, America, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore, there has been much research undertaken to analyze about green roofs. By comparing, the survey and acquisition of green roofs engineering into current design and building pattern to the local context is still in its babyhood phase. Malaysia has merely launched its ain green edifice evaluation this twelvemonth i.e. Green Building Index whereas developed states such as our adjacent state Singapore has for a twosome of old ages back get downing their manner with a proper evaluation system, in which green roofs are one of its chief evaluation standards ( Venus, 2008 ) .
As it is comparatively new in Malaysia, farther surveies are needed to analyze about green roofs, non merely on its environmental issues but besides on its societal and cultural facets, particularly looking at the impact it has towards a topographic point. The decrease of public green infinites due to development and lifting cost of land in urban countries like in Kuala Lumpur could impact and deteriorate the life quality ( Van Kamp et al. , 2003 ) . Although today many commercial edifices have started to integrate green roofs, the full potency of green roof particularly in lodging undertakings ( except for dais garden in medium/high cost condominium ) is still missing.
Surveies in Singapore shows that developers are in general frequently held back from integrating green roofs in the design demands chiefly by concerns like high initial costs and structural burden capacity ( Yeo, 2001 ) Further study in Singapore shows that the general response from constructing professionals show a deficiency of proficient know-how, deficiency of grasp of the benefits and public presentation and the fright that green roof directing up as redundant and fresh infinites ( Wong, 2002 ) . Findingss on occupants ‘ perceptual experience nevertheless indicate a positive response that there is a strong support of the proviso of roof gardens ( Belinda & A ; Wong, 2004 )
Basically, there are two chief design options for green roofs. The first is to use it as a roof garden with pleasant position for the proprietor and optionally to use it as an undisturbed home ground for vegetations and zoologies within gray metropolis Centres. Both fluctuations provide a wide scope of private and public benefits. Deciding on which use to concentrate is important and has to be considered every bit early as the planning phase. In add-on, the maximal burden bearing capacity, care, works choice, substrates and the disbursal budgeting must match with the desired green roofs type ( Anon. , 2009c )
There are 3 types of green roofs. The following tabular array can be used to sum up the character of the three different signifiers of green roofs:
Table 1.0: Summary of differences between extended, semi-intensive and intensive green roofs.
Moss-Sedum-Herbs and Grasses
Grass-Herbs and Shrubs
Lawn or Perennials, Shrubs and Trees
System build-up tallness
60 – 200 millimeter
120 – 250 millimeter
150 – 400 millimeter on belowground garages & gt ; 1000 millimeter
60 – 150 kg/m2
13 -30 lb/sqft
120 – 200 kg/m2
25 – 40 lb/sqft
180 – 500 kg/m2
35 – 100 lb/sqft
Ecological protection bed
Designed Green Roof
Park like garden
Beginning: igra-world.com ( retrieved 10th April, 2009 )
Extensive green roofs are fundamentally good suited to roofs with small burden bearing capacity and sites which are non meant to be used as roof gardens. The costs are lower than semi-intensive or intensive green roofs. The mineral substrate bed, incorporating small foods, is non really deep but suited for less demanding and low growth works communities ( Anon. , 2009d ) . This system is non designed for public usage and chiefly developed for aesthetic and ecological benefits ( Werthmann, C. ( 2007 ) . It can besides be incorporated on pitched roofs of up to 30 grades ( Kalzip Nature Roof, 2001 )
Semi-intensive green roofs in footings of demands fall in between extended and intensive green roof systems. More care, higher costs and more weight are the features for the intermediate green roofs type compared to that of the extended green roof ( Anon. , 2009d ) .
Intensive green roofs are developed to be accessible for public ( Werthmann, C. ( 2007 ) Hence, walkways, benches, resort areas or even pools can be established as characteristics on the roof. There are no restrictions in design and individualism, but considerations should be given on the system build-up and the selected works communities need to be harmonious with one another. In add-on, the sum of care of intensive green roofs is higher than on extended green roofs and lasting irrigation and fertilisation have to be ensured ( Anon, 2009d ) .
The issues in manus are much related to earlier surveies on urban infinites as green roofs are in fact a smaller graduated table or pockets of urban public infinites which is instead less public logistically.
Research across different subjects has shown that unfastened infinite, peculiarly affecting verdure has straight benefits the urban environment and makes the metropolis livable. ( Rogers and Urban Task Force, 1999 ; Spouses for Livable Communities, 2000 ; Van Kamp et al. , 2003 ) . Dwyer ( 1992 ) studied that verdure really gives a chilling consequence to the environment whilst other research workers like Ulrich and Simons ( 1991 ) have studied on human benefits. Ulrich ( 1984 ) for illustration is widely cited for exemplifying the renewing wellness benefits that window position verdure can hold on patient recovery. To Miller ( 1986 ) and others such as Thompson ( 2002 ) show that the desire for contact with nature will merely increase as people become more urban in their manner of life.
Social and cultural benefits of green roofs are as below but non sole:
Facilitate leisure, recreational and cultural activities
Green roofs provide extra infinite which would otherwise is left vacant, redundant or usage for services etc. Figure 9 below is a typical position of patio lodging estates in Malaysia. There is a large potency of altering the current tendency of rough concrete tiles roofscape to a more sustainable and functional green roofs which can be enjoyed by the occupants as a private household country.
For general public usage, the semi-intensive and intensive green roofs are the most effectual as they are designed to be more accessible and can suit more installations and fly-by-night trees. Peck ( 1999 ) has studied that urban metropoliss can be made more livable by supplying important sum of accessible out-of-door diversion or agreeableness infinite. Furthermore, given high premium for countries at street degrees in metropolis countries, green roofs provide chances for a more privy, less contaminated and less noisy infinites for informal diversion ( Johnston & A ; Newton, 1996 )
Figure 9: A typical position of patio lodging and low-priced flats in Kuala Lumpur. Converting the concrete tile roofs to green roofs can be a possible solution to the societal ailments due to miss of private infinite in urban countries.
Green roofs would supply enjoyment by holding landscape specifying the infinite and supplying urban occupants the scene for out-of-door recreational chases. This is really relevant for the less able-bodied people ( aged, handicapped and kids ) and those who can non afford the clip or the money to go far who are dependent on near-home diversion infinites ( Dwyer et al. 1994 ) .
Improve community interactions
By holding green roofs, the community of a lodging country would hold the chances to make communal garden for assorted activities, therefore bettering engagement of the occupants. This would further better interaction, make a feeling of co-ownership and security as green roofs are rather protected semi-public country, off from land.
Curative and curative effects on wellness:
Ocular every bit good as physical contacts with workss have a direct wellness benefits which can bring forth renewing effects. This would cut down emphasis, provide better wellness to defy unwellness every bit good as improve recovery period for recovering patients ( Ulrich & A ; Parsons, 1992 ) . Surveies by Johston & A ; Newton ( 1996 ) besides found that occupants with balcony or patio gardens are less susceptible to illness in a high-density environment. Further, the “ white noise ” of the air current rustling through foliages, fragrant of flowers and workss can trip responses that are cognitive, and be given to be remembered more vividly ( Porteous, 1985 ) therefore holding a btter mending effects on wellness.
Improve aesthetic entreaty
Green roofs provide home grounds for vegetations and zoologies to turn. Having landscape on roof tops is delighting to the oculus and is an attractive force to urbanites and provides ocular contrast and alleviation to the highly-built up metropolis environment ( Dwyer et al 1994 ) . Green roofs besides hide ugly rooftop services which sore the position, particularly for occupants and workers in high rise developments which frequently look down on big disbursal of asphalt, tiles, and hair-raisers of the level roofs ( Johnston & A ; Newton, 1996 )
Cultivation of veggies and nutrient
Laman Padi in Langkawi ( Figure 7 ) is an illustration of the possibility of cultivating Paddy as proposed by Datuk Seri Sanusi Junid, the former Chief Minister of Kedah. Although the proposal is non carried out widely, yet the thought is feasible. This is studied by Graneme ( 1998 ) which shows that an agricultural house ( Annex Organics ) that managed to bring forth salable tomatoes utilizing advanced semi-hydroponics system on a roof garden in Toronto. Even Changi Hospital has harvested several harvests of leafy leafy vegetables and fruits, including 150kg of cherry tomatoes from aquicultures plantation owners on its roof top ( Nathan, 1999 )
Economic wise, proviso of green roofs would give a higher value to the belongings. It is a societal benefit to the community and an added value particularly to units that are looking the green roofs. Surveies in America and UK show that good tree screen increases belongings value by 6-15 % ( Peck et al, 1999 )
it can be seen that green roofs can extenuate non merely the environmental issues but besides on socio-culture of a topographic point. Presently, it is observed that many researches in Malaysia merely focus on the impact of green roof to the environment. Further surveies should be carried out to measure on the qualitative facet of green roofs, particularly on its theoretical facets that can assist to convey society to a better degree. Now that Malaysia is traveling for the green evaluation system, it is even more important that a deeper survey in the local context be made.
2.4 Transformation/Modification Theory in Housing
Housing transmutation or alteration is an index when there are disagreements between what the dwellers need against the lodging design. The assorted grounds why people modify their places is already discussed in Question 1 ( a ) above and i.e. associating the Theory of Transformation. However, lodging demands in Malaysia usually occurred when the household needs additions. The alterations are besides in phases reflecting the necessity and economic ability of the household. Residential mobility is besides comparatively low as traveling out is non a common pattern due to high monetary value and neighbourhood fond regard prevalent in the Asiatic societies ( Zaiton, 2007 )
2.4.2 Factors impacting transmutation
Housing transformation/ accommodation / alteration involves physical alterations to the bing house which reflect disagreements in footings of lodging demands, civilization and manner of life as described by Rapoport ( 1992 ) . For this survey, transmutation implies activities affecting extension and changes to the bing edifice built in the private sector. These alterations are made in order to run into the demands and penchants instead than the demand of doing good the house due to have on and rupture. Understanding why transmutation occurs in lodging is important to familiarise with the assorted dimensions impacting the family ‘s determination devising, therefore on their credence degree.
Housing transmutation as purported by Rapoport, 1969 and Nasar, 1989 implied that it is a coefficient of reflection to the occupant ‘s personality, gustatory sensations, involvement, lifestyle values and societal position. They suggested that people consciously or subconsciously modify their places in order to show their personal and societal individuality in the society.
Kirwan and Martin ( 1972 ) categorized lodging change determination is because of the expected benefits gained i.e. by the size of the house ( floor country, secret plan size, room figure etc. ) , the lodging quality ( construction, adjustments etc. ) , location handiness ( to installations, employment etc. ) and environment ( neighbourhood character both socially and physically ) .
Seek ( 1983 ) have discussed on the determinations on place betterment and deduction it has on the lodging accommodation procedure in Australia. He purported that house betterment depends on the household life rhythm such as in the addition income and family size. In the survey, he discovered that the higher income groups really make up a bigger proportion in Numberss in transporting out place betterments. He besides developed a conceptual model that suggested that the concluding determination in lodging accommodation involved two phases i.e. the determination to set one ‘s lodging ingestion and the pick between to travel, better or both. Oxman and Carmon ( 1986 ) who carried out a survey in Israel besides shows similar consequence i.e. families with higher income tend to put more in extensions than low-income families.
Another research by Potepan ( 1989 ) showed that around 1980 ‘s in the United States, high involvement rates made house betterment more attractive relation to traveling among house proprietors who held fixed rate mortgages. Traveling implied a higher mortgage due to the addition in involvement rate. He besides identified that for house betterment to be made, secret plan size, layout program and the old building method plays of import functions. Therefore for minor extension, betterment is the most economical option.
However, Gostling et. Al ( 1991 ) rejected Seek ‘s claim that extension is due to the household life rhythm. Their findings on the other manus show that extension activity represents a progressive upgrading of the belongings to accomplish higher infinite criterions and quality. The survey was conducted in 1987 when there was a flourishing lodging market in United Kingdom. With the elevation of lodging monetary values, they found that families were more inclined to widen as the cost of buying a larger house is higher. This is added with the scarceness of land and competitory demand for lodging that led house proprietors to widen. Gostling besides mentioned on the location and residential environment factors on lodging ingestion i.e. handiness to assorted urban installations ( including employment chances ) and the environmental quality besides plays a major function.
Tipple ( 1997 ) found in his survey that people expect fiscal return from the lodging ingestion e.g. in the signifier of higher rental income and market value. However, compared to Gostling ‘s position of accomplishing a higher spacial quality, he highlighted that the findings in developed states is different from the developing states i.e. in the former, families have the option to travel or better, nevertheless for the latter, particularly the lower income group, rarely move to a new unit.
H. Ahmad Hariza et.al ( 2006 ) did a survey in low cost patio lodging in Malaysia and purported that alterations to the house is the consequence of the deficiency of privateness, which was missing in the original design. Other surveies abroad had besides indicated the same consequence ( Abu Gazzeh ( 1996 ) ; Al-Kodmany ( 1999 ) ; Ozaki ( 2001 ) .
There are different factors impacting the theory of lodging transmutation between the developed and developing states. The relevancy to the local context requires farther examination.
Medium cost patio lodging is more appropriate in this research as studied by Seek ( 1983 ) and Oxmon & A ; Carmen ( 1986 ) i.e. higher income group are likely to be more interested in transmutation of their places.
The chief dimensions derived from the surveies are return of investing, capital required ( due to income & A ; involvement rates ) , spacial demands ( due to household life rhythm ) and privateness.
2.5 Environmental behaviour on credence
2.5.1 Theory of Planned Behavior
2.5.2 Theory of Acceptance – engineering credence theoretical account
2.5.3 Theory of Diffusion of invention
2.6 Housing Puting in Malaysia
2.6.1 Housing Policies
Housing is a big subject to discourse on. Research can cover on assorted topics e.g. whether it is a public or private belongings ; low/medium/high cost lodging, landed or tower block, urban or suburb country etc. From the research topic, many surveies have been made associating to facets of lodging as in economic sciences, societal, engineering /environmental and policy execution. There are assorted surveies from each facet made, for illustration in lodging and societal surveies, subjects such as good being, neighbourhood satisfaction, community living/participation and spatial-cultural analysis have been studied.
2.6.2 Housing in urban country
Housing is a basic societal demand that is necessary for shelter, life and security for the household and is reflected as one of the constituents of the Malayan Quality of Life Index ( 2007 ) . The authorities, since the 5th Malaysia Plan ( 1986-1990 ) had introduced the construct of human colony with accent on the life environment and the people as its focal point of development. The committedness is carried through during the recent 9th Malayan Plan with the aim in supplying equal and nice lodging. However, in supplying these lodging to provide for the rapid turning demand of the population, the developments unwrap many jobs and design failures which had given many negative impact on the quality of life and societal forms of the occupants ( Nurizan, 2000 )
a ) KL2020
B ) RMK 9/10
2.6.3 Terrace lodging
House signifier is seen as reflecting cultural, behavioural and societal features ( Rapoport, 1975 ) . In the instance of patio lodging in Malaysia, the failure in the design is shown in the disregard of cultural and societal facets of the occupants. The debut of mass lodging in the signifier of patio lodging in the late 1960 ‘s has changed significantly the landscape of lodging countries. Based on the British lodging design typology, the design focal point on the thought of maximising usage of land secret plan. The Uniform Building By-Laws ( UBBL ) which is still used today is based from the British criterions e.g. on the use of reverses, edifice distances, airing and natural lighting, fire interruptions in party walls etc.
Terrace lodging proliferated in measure in the 1970 ‘s and go the most outstanding and popular lodging typology in the heavy country, with most of the units design in rows with back back street and frequently the forepart and back fronting each other. The design is non congruous to the manner of life of its dwellers and ensuing in behavioural version. For illustration, Zaiton ( 2007 ) highlighted on the deficiency of privateness in the patio lodging, peculiarly to the Malay dwellers which resulted in alterations of the house.
Terrace lodging is preferred by bulk of Malaysian ( REHDA, 2004, Prasad, 2005 ) . Since the patio lodging comes in assortment of design therefore floor countries, the monetary value besides varies which is attractive to the different income groups. Bing humdrum in design, it is designed in such a manner to harvest the most net incomes from the land available i.e. by maximising the figure of units. There are a single-storey, two-storey and three-storey patio lodging, but most of patio lodging in the urban country comprise of the latter two due to economic factors.
There are 3 types of patio lodging design, i.e. the intermediate, the terminal and the corner unit. The intermediate unit is designed in between other units and is the highest in per centum in any development. The terminal unit is the 1 located at the terminal of a row and usually flanked by a 10 pess entree route to let for fire interruption and entree to endorse back street. The corner unit is the most broad and located at the terminal of the row with the inclusion of a minimal 20 pess broad land at its side.
It is observed that in most patio lodging development, there are more 2-storey units than the 3-storey. The batch sizes of the intermediate units varies from 14 ‘ ten 55 ‘ to 20 ‘ ten 70 ‘ . There are bigger units sizing from 20’x80 ‘ but are largely older units and are no longer built. The units by and large have common features, nevertheless units located at premier countries are usually smaller in size and priced higher due to the higher land cost.
– KL country
2.6.4 Green roof and lodging in Malaya
In Malaysia, green roofs have been incorporated in undertakings like commercial edifices, hotel developments, authorities edifices, lodging developments ( middle/high terminal condominiums ) and multi-storey auto Parkss. Most of the green roofs are located on dais with easy entree to the populace as shown below ( Figure 1-8 )
Figure 1: Marc Apartment, a typical high-end condominium with green roofs at its dais degree.
Figure 2 ( above left ) : Avenue K, a assorted development undertaking with green roof at its dais degree looking KLCC.
Figure 3 ( above right ) : Shangri-La Hotel in Putrajaya uses green roof and landscape patios to camouflage the hotel with its environing hilltop landscape.
Figure 4: Aeon Jusco Shopping Complex, Setiawangsa introduces green roof above its carpark.
Figure 5 ( above left ) : Econsave Shoping Complex in Cheras utilizes the whole roof top as a leisure park.
Figure 6 ( above right ) : Mid Valley assorted development composite incorporated green roof and potted workss on the dais above its multi degree auto park.
Figure 7: Faculty of Science Social, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor.
Figure 8: Laman Padi Museum in Langkawi Island, Kedah is a multi-tiered green roof cultivated with Paddy for ecotourism intents.
Although there are many precedency of green roof, academic research is far dawdling behind compared to other states. There are a few researches done on green roof. At Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, surveies were conducted to analyze the environmental benefits of extended green roof for storm H2O and heat decrease ( Shaharuddin et al. , 2006, 2007 ) Another survey at the same secret plan was conducted demoing consequences that soil thickness and flora play an of import function in cut downing the surface temperature of roof and could lend to thermic decrease of edifice ( Yaakob et al. , 2008 )
A research carried out at University Teknologi Malaysia studied on the economic sciences of green roof, i.e. on affordability of green roof system for in-between income families. However, the paper was tailored to the middle-income families in Pakistan and non Malaysia. The proposed system was designed utilizing locally available stuffs and meets the specific demands of the middle-income occupants including affordability and less care ( Abdul, 2006 ) A recent survey in USM is presently analyzing on potted workss on roof top and mensurating the consequence of potted workss on level roof to the indoor thermic public presentation of edifices and CO2 decrease in ambiance ( Asmat et al. , 2008 )
Rooftop ‘s use as green unfastened infinite is non new. There are many edifices in Malaysia using green roofs, such as in commercial edifice, institutional and even high rise residential blocks. However it is really rare to happen it being applied to a low rise, patio houses country. The cognition degree and hinderance perceived by the proprietors every bit good as the professionals should be seek in order to understand why this step have non been opted. With the current scenario of urban country jobs such as the deficit of land, urban heat island, offense, rising prices, H2O deficit, design spacial restraints etc. , rooftop greening seems to be one of the best sustainable solution. There are many surveies conducted on the environmental facet of green roofs but non many on the socio-economic positions in Malaysia. Therefore, research on how green rooftops can be made executable in order to extenuate positive alterations to the status of those populating in the heavy urban patio lodging should be made.