SECURE ATM BY IMAGE PROCESSINg ABSTRACT This paper encloses the information regarding the ‘IMAGE PROCESSING’. And discussed one of the major application of image processing ‘BIOMETRICS’. Biometrics technology allows determination and verification of ones identity through physical characteristics. To put it simply, it turns your body in to your password writing community service hours letter . We discussed various biometric techniques like finger scan, retina scan, facial scan, hand scan etc. Two algorithms have been proposed by taking biometric techniques to authenticate an ATM account holder , enabling a secure ATM by image processing.
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Biometrics is now applied in various public and private sectors. No doubt, biometrics is going to be next generation’s powerful security tool…! What is Digital Image Processing? An Image may be defined as a two dimensional function f (x,y) where x and y are spatial(plane) coordinates x, y is called intensity or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y and the amplitude values of f are all finite, discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. Interest in digital image areas: improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation: and representation for autonomous machine perception.
The entire process of Image Processing and starting from the receiving of visual information to the giving out of description of the scene, may be divided into three major stages which are also considered as major sub areas, and are given below (i) Discretization and representation: Converting visual information into a discrete form: suitable for computer processing: approximating visual information to save storage space as well as time requirement in subsequent processing. (ii) Processing :Improving image quality by filtering etc ; compressing data to save storage and channel capacity during transmission. iii) Analysis: Extracting image features; qualifying shapes, registration and recognition. We concentrated on human interpretation application and developed two algorithms which can make the ATM secure by image processing. 1. Overview With the increasing necessity of e-mail accessing and Internet resources and the convenience it offers serious security concerns also arise. Internet is vulnerable to intruders who are always snooping to find open computers in the network to steal personal files, information or cause any damage.
The loss of these records, emails or customer files can be devastating. 1. 1 Draw back of passwords-need for Biometrics No more problems if forgotten passwords and id codes, biometrics is the technology taking care of it which turns your body into your password. Typically, the more rigorous you make your password selection and construction rules the more difficulty users will have in remembering their passwords. Unfortunately, strict password rules are necessary to stop simple hacker attacks on the network. The fundamental problem with password is two fold.
First, they are transferable they can be written down on paper, they can be transferred to some one who should not have them. Second, and just as important, they can be forgotten. Recent research suggests that a forgotten password can cost as much as US$ 340 per event! This is n’t too surprising. Clearly, the risk and costs of compromised passwords are a significant facto to consider in developing any sure system. The critical need for additional level of security has given rise to the field of “BIOMETRICS” 2. Introduction
The present generation security issue is considered the basic TCP/IP encryptions and other factors that are provided by the network. But there was lack of consistent identification of individuals, then the newly developed technology Biometrics, came in to picture. Biometrics can be defined as recognizing and identifying a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics. Biometrics technologies are applied in the following sectors: Public services, law enforcement, banking, physical access control and control and computer networks.
These include fingerprints, facial features, retina shape, speech, handwriting, etc. Biometrics can be used to prevent unauthorized access to ATM’s, smart cards, desktop PC’s workstations, cellular phones, home security systems, door locks, etc. The advanced Biometrics solution uses a more sophisticated method called “identification”. The design of an advanced solution enables the product to search a very large database and pick the individual from the crowd. Biometric is the most secure and convenient authentication tool. It can’t be borrowed.
Stolen, or forgotten, and forging one is practically impossible. 2. 1 Classification of biometrics: The two categories of biometric techniques are: The physiological based techniques, which measure the physiological characteristics of a person. These include fingerprint verification, iris analysis, facial analysis, hand geometry-vein patterns, ear recognition, odor detection and DNA pattern analysis. The behavioral based techniques, which measure the behavior of a person. These include hand written signature verification and speech analysis. These techniques involve two major steps.
These are the Authentication & the verification. Authentication is a process of one-to one comparison, rather than a mass searching process. Identification is a process of checking for a particular identity in the database available. The setting of the error tolerance of these systems is critical to their performance. Both errors (False Rejection and False Acceptance). Should be low and they should both are quoted by the manufacturers. 3. How biometric technology works Process involved in using a biometric system for security is: Figure1. During enrollment: )Capture the biometrics, which has to be stored in the database; 2) Process the biometric, extract and enroll the biometric template; 3)Store the template in a local repository, a central repository, or a portable token such as a smart card. During access to database: 4) Live-scan the biometric feature; 5) Process the biometric and extract the biometric template; 6) Match the scanned biometric against stored templates; 7) Incase of successful verification; provide a matching score to business application; 8) Record a secure audit trail with respect to system use
Biometric applications depend on comparing as new measure against previously captured information. In biometric applications, some aspect of a person is measured; the measure is processed; and the resulting data is stored; At a subsequent time, the same aspect of a person is measured and compared against the stored data . If it is being used for authentication, the new data is compared against the data, already in storage for that person. If it is being used for identification, the entire database is searched, in order to locate one or more individuals that are a close fit to the new data.
Most biometrics technologies do not seek exact equality between the new and the stored measures. Instead they have a pre-set tolerance range within which the two are deemed to be sufficiently close. In order to reduce transmission time, costs and to require less storage space, compression algorithms are used. To provide better transfer rate of data during identification & authentication ‘hashing’ is used. Hashing is a process of detecting the perfect match of a particular input record from a large database using a hashing function. 4. Applications of biometrics
All the information regarding the fingerprints, retina etc… Are digitalized and stored. This can be compared with a database in seconds and with an extraordinary degree of accuracy. Fingerprints have the advantage of being cheaper and simpler than most other biometrics. 4. 1E-commerce Applications: E-commerce developers are exploring the use of biometrics to more accurately verify a trading party’s identity. 4. 2 Covert Surveillance: Facial and body recognition biometric techniques come in to picture automatically to identify known suspects entering buildings or traversing crowed security areas such as airports. . Types of Biometric security technologies: 5. 1 Finger scan: Finger-scan biometrics is base on the distinctive characteristics of the human fingerprint. A fingerprint image is read from a capture device, features are extracted from the image, and a template is created. Figure2: Fingerprints are used in forensic applications: large- scale, one-to-many searches on databases of up to millions of fingerprints. These searches can be done within only a few hours by using AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems).
The basic in both finger scan and finger prints is that the curvatures, deltas, crossovers, pores, loops etc, are of a person are captured and stored in the database in digitized for and are encrypted in cases of authentication or identification. 5. 2 Retina scan: Retina scan requires the user to situate his or her eye with ? inch of the capture device and hold still while the reader ascertains the patterns. The user looks at a rotating green light as the patterns of the retina are measured at over 400 points; which leads a very high level off accuracy in comparison to most other biometrics. Retina scan is designed to use in ilitary facilities, logical security applications such as network access or PC logic. The patterns of blood vessels on the back of the human eye are unique from person to person. The blood vessels on the back of the retina are generally stable through one’s lifetime, with the exception of degenerative diseases. Since the retina is an internal portion of the eye, retina scanning is considered intrusive. Thus the individual may be hesitant to get exposed to the scanning. Moreover, retina scanning is a costly and sophisticated process . 5. 3 Iris scan: The iris has colored streaks and lines that radiate out from the pupil of the eye.
The iris provides the most comprehensive biometric data after DNA. And the chance that any two people may have the same pattern is one in 10 to-the-power-78, which is way above the current population of the Earth. In this scanning, the characteristics of the iris are taken into account. About 266 unique points are recorded and converted into a 512-byte iris code (somewhat similar to barcode). For recording the iris pattern, a monochrome camera is used and the distance between the eye and the camera can be at most 3 feet. The iris code constructed contains information the characteristics and position of the unique points.
The iris has more unique information than any other single organ in the body. 6. Drawbacks: A major problem with biometrics is how and where to store the user’s template. Its storage introduces privacy concerns. On the other hand, storing the template on a smart card enhances individual privacy and increases protection from attack, because individual users control their own templates. Inside the eye is a very delicate area and so, many people are very hesitating to use laser eye device. Two primary causes of errors affect biometric data: time and environmental conditions. Biometrics may change as an individual ages.
Environmental conditions may either after the biometric directly (for example, if a finger is cut and scarred) or interfere with the data collection (for instance, background noise when using a voice biometric). 7. Future of biometrics Biometric technology is one area that no segment of the IT industry can afford to ignore, biometrics provides security benefits across the spectrum, from IT vendors to end users, and from security system developers to security system users. All these industry sectors must evaluate the costs and benefits of implementing such security measures. 8. Work on biometrics Every biometric system has its limitations.
Therefore, identification based on multiple biometrics is an emerging trend as multimodel biometrics can provide a more balanced solution to the security multimodel systems involve the use of more than one biometric system. Our contribution to the above subject is that we have developed an algorithm on banking security. For this we have considered a bank using biometric technology for its security purpose. The security is assured by using finger scan, voice scan, hand geometry scan and by requesting the password given by the bank for a particular user when necessary. The following are the flowcharts and the algorithms. . 2. 1Algorithm 1: a)STEP 1: A person enters the bank that uses biometric technology (finger scan, voice scan & hand scan) for greater degree of security. b)STEP 2: The person is requested to give his or her fingerprint (as input) on the finger scan pad Fingerprint is matched with any one of the fingerprints available in the database (condition) THEN, GOTO STEP 8. ELSE (i. e. , if finger print does not find a match) GOTOSTEP 4 c)STEP 4: The person is requested to speak few words, which is converted into digitalized code by the voice scanner. )STEP 5: The code in the above step is compared with all the voice codes in the database e)IF the code is matched (condition) THEN, GOTO ALGORITHM 2 f)ELSE (i. e. , if the code does not find a match) GOTO STEP 6. g) STEP6: The person is requested to plae his hand above the hand scanner so that the structure of the hand is recorded. h) STEP 7: The data in the above step is compared with all the data available in the database. IF the data is matched THEN,……. GOTO STEP8. ELSE (i. e. , the data does not find a match)……. GOTO Algorithm 2. i) STEP 8: access the matched file in the database j) STEP 9: Exit. 8. 2. Algorithm 2: k) STEP 1: A request is sent to the database querying it to send the password file from the OS security files. l) The passwords are received in an encrypted from (DES-data Encryption Standards). m) STEP 2: The person is requested to speak his password. n) STEP3: the vocal password spoken in the above step is converted into textual password by the speech processing circuit. o) STEP 4:This password is compared with the password file from STEP 1; IF match is found THEN, …… Access the database. ELSE, …… Glow the danger light (indicating theft) p) STEP5: Exit. 9. Conclusion:
Considering various applications of image processing – biometric techniques like finger scan, retina scan etc, finger scan is widely used. Biometric technology has been around for decades but has mainly been for highly secretive environments with extreme security measures. The proposed algorithm for security of ATM’s implies a secure world with biometrics, enabling a secure ATM’S by image processing. The technologies behind biometrics are still emerging. This article gives a snapshot of the dynamics under way in this emerging biometric market, and we hope it will help all the possible alternatives when acquiring new biometric technologies.