Lebanon ‘s population histories to 4.224 million people as of twelvemonth 2010 that produce 1,380,000 dozenss of Municipal Solid Waste ( MSW ) per twelvemonth ; this means 3 dozenss per individual. “ The composing of MSW is extremely organic ( 63 % ) while the staying ( 37 % ) is constituted of paper, composition board, plastic, glass, metals and others. ” ( Merhebi, & A ; Hickman, 2004 ) In the absence of a proper Solid Waste Management scheme, the Lebanese citizens are burdened with the bad olfactory properties and diseases spread by the dumped wastes. The services follow the “ collect and shit ” attack, with no set recycling program.
MSW is a critical environmental and fiscal challenge that demands the precedence from both private and public sectors. It even causes societal jobs that people shacking near disposal sites suffer from on day-to-day footing.
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On the other manus, the Lebanese electricity division is confronting a crisis of its ain ; it is unable to back up the people with their demands. Although the costs of the electricity outgo is utmost compared to other states as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Regional Duties in USA?/kWh
It falls short on providing the dependable electricity needed in houses, companies or even streets. Electricity is going a drain on the governmental economic system and working its manner to increase the state ‘s shortage. This is really cutting money out of other sectors ‘ pockets and puting Lebanese finance in a unsafe unstable hazard.
The province we have reached symbolizes the lacking Lebanese state of affairs and its authorities ‘s independence and answerability on other states to help it out of its muss.
A solution must be put into action to assist Lebanon with these two critical crises that affect its people both environmentally and economically. A Solid Waste Management Program merely suggests a engineering to change over refuse into visible radiation. The transition is based on two classs: biological transition and gasification. These gases are finally used in the electrical coevals procedure.
In the absence of a solid waste direction scheme in our state, wastes have accumulated over the old ages. The accretion was due to natural and socio-political events and the deficiency of recycling capablenesss during the civil war. The three major accretion sights are in Normandie, Bourj Hammoud, and Saida. Other factors that lead to the formation of the refuse mountain in Saida are the temblor and the Israeli invasion. In 1956, the “ Chhim ” temblor destroyed a immense part of the old metropolis and in 1982, the Israeli invasion lead to a entire devastation of the western portion of the metropolis. The debris ensuing from these devastations had to be thrown someplace so the southern portion of the metropolis was chosen as an ideal topographic point.
In Normandie, the populace and the private sector have decided to distribute the refuse into the sea in order to widen the shore and make a park on the refuse location. On the other manus, the state of affairs was different in Bourj Hammoud where the authorities has decided to works the refuse mountain with trees in order to restrict the detonations and fires that where happening due to the gases released. Although some attending was provided to work out those jobs, no 1 gave importance to Saida ‘s landfill site which is still roll uping and taking to more environmental catastrophes.
Undertaking ‘s Objective
This undertaking ‘s aim is to cut down the Municipal Solid Wastes in Lebanon and at the same clip to bring forth electric power to counterbalance the spread we live in presents.
The ends of this undertaking are to:
a. Reduce MSW and pollution in general in Lebanon
B. Generate Electricity
c. Solve the societal and medical jobs that occupants in the disposal countries suffer from day-to-day.
d. Supply new occupation chances at the new installations
c. Gas use units
Undertaking ‘s Output
Reports estimation that Lebanon demands around 8,239,380 MWh today, with an expected addition of 60 % by the twelvemonth 2015. Elecricite du Liban supplies about 67 % of this demand at the upper limit. This undertaking promises to provide approximately 83,000 MWh per twelvemonth utilizing a 20 MW power works. This will diminish the CO2 emanations and generate fertilisers used for anaerobiotic procedures. This will all return money and nourish the state ‘s economic system.
The undertaking requires an country of around 28000 M3 and it has been decided to build the power works in a non-inhabitant part. Such specifications were merely found in the Bekaa Valley. The location of such specification is identified by ruddy block in Figure 1.
Figure 2. Land for works development
General Description of the Proposed Undertaking
About the Undertaking
Undertaking Title: Converting MSW Waste into Electricity
Location: Bekaa State: Lebanese republic
Area required: 4 Hectares
So far Lebanon has found no proper manner to cover with its wastes and an immediate action must be taken to work out this hanging issue. Recycling was an efficient attack, but the consequence was complicated because people did n’t screen their refuse and making so subsequently requires a batch of clip and attempt. Compositing and incinerating MSW so change overing it into fertilising stuff is another successful program, but it carries along a immense sum of pollution and high cost which Lebanon can non presently afford.
This undertaking introduces a new method of change overing waste into electricity, which will assist Lebanon in two of its most faulty sectors. The chief method in this new undertaking is fundamentally called “ utilizing anaerobiotic digestion procedure combined gasification and power coevals ”
Undertaking ‘s Benefits:
Such a undertaking will better the Lebanese environmental, economic and societal sectors. In general, after roll uping and taking the MSW from the streets and cut downing the mountains of refuse ‘s immense sizes, we omit pollution and diseases.
The undertaking ‘s impact on the environment is positive after:
Reducing nursery gases
Reducing acid rain
Reducing the usage of dodo fuel
Reducing dirt taint
Reducing H2O pollution
Reducing air pollution caused by unfastened combustion of refuse
Thereby, the undertaking helps Lebanon in agencies of:
Supplying new occupation chances in the mills and therefore poorness decrease
Decreasing spread of diseases in environing
Purifying the air of bad olfactory properties
Technology transportation ( conveying into Lebanon newest technological equipment )
This undertaking helps non merely the populace from smelling bad olfactory properties or illuming their houses, but has an consequence on husbandmans, economic experts, builders, applied scientists and many other business communities.
This undertaking manages the municipal wastes and uses them to bring forth electricity and distributes it to the families. The endeavor will work with Sukleen Company that will be responsible for the recycling procedure therefore bring forthing, roll uping and presenting the methane gas to the MSW power works. In the coevals facet, the endeavor will join forces with EDL who will be responsible for the coevals, passage and distribution of the electricity in Lebanon. The figure of EDL employees who will roll up the money from the endorsers will stay the same ( around 2300 ) but an extra of 500 employees are needed to run the MSW power works.
Energy generated by the undertaking
An estimation of 2400 dozenss of waste is generated daily in Lebanon.
The capacity of the MSW power works will supply 20MW.
Gross electric merchandise per twelvemonth ( KWh )
= Net end product ( MW ) * 24 * 330 days/year *availability
= 20 MW *24 *365 *0.7
= 122640000 KWh
An country of 28000m^3 is required.
Fiscal Analysis of the Undertaking
Overall Cost Estimate:
A fiscal analysis helps give a clearer image of the undertakings profitableness. Given that no similar undertaking was done in Lebanon, we will mention to other undertakings done in other states. We will take “ Utilization of Municipal Solid Waste for Electricity Generation in Indonesia ” as the chief sample, because of the elaborate fiscal analysis listed in the undertaking proposal. The overall cost estimation of making such a undertaking is about 40 million dollars. The gross on the other manus is about 26 million dollars, including the electricity and fertilisers gross revenues.
We expect such a immense undertaking to be under the Governmental supervising, and so its part must non be less than approximately 30 million dollars to get down up this undertaking. The other 10 million dollars can be administered by Bankss and other equity or capital foreign parts. The lands where the installations must be built are available and at the minute of no usage. As for the on the job manus, we find that many Lebanese people, of huge accomplishments are really unemployed and truly to be recruited in such a professional workplace. And so, we find out that this undertaking is really executable.
Statement of Poverty Reduction
Such a undertaking will assist make huge occupation gaps at the assorted installations build and services offered. This will assist better the environing community and general societal position of the Lebanese public. The mills will necessitate computing machine technicians, operators, care forces, mechanical applied scientists, directors, environment applied scientists and even a cleaning staff. Skilled and unskilled forces can use their attempts, bettering the public public assistance and heightening the rational life. A new undertaking will increase the economic status of the people in general, it will non merely unfastened new occupation chances, but instead unfastened better life conditions and an improved life criterion. The electricity offered to every Lebanese house will be much cheaper than today ‘s dodo fuel based electricity measure. Lebanon can besides come in the fertilisers market and go a bargainer.
The execution of the undertaking could perchance exercise an impact to the locality in footings of cut downing air pollution, bad olfactory properties, and diseases. The undertaking would non exercise an inauspicious environmental impact to the environing country. The undertaking installations would be developed and constructed in conformity with the environmental criterions applied in Lebanon. On the contrary, the undertaking would move to better the environment by cleansing the disposal site, cut down if non extinguish the bad olfactory properties, create a healthier atmospheric air.
In implementing the undertaking, the undermentioned environmental impact issues are to be considered.
The installations implemented by this undertaking will be consistent with the environmental and legal ecosystem criterions. It will let the cleaning of the ambiance in a more efficient mode, it will diminish the diseases distributing about in the environing country of the disposal site and it will extinguish the bad olfactory properties released from them.
Many unfortunate incidents might happen and discourage our undertakings agenda and being, such as:
Natural catastrophes that are beyond human control
Deficit in fiscal support from the patrons
Waste direction is of immense precedence because it concerns both the Lebanese environment and the community. The decrease of pollution, production of electricity, and decline in the authorities shortage are non impossible dreams, but a world that will be achieved by this undertaking.
There are no regulations in Lebanon that limit the GHG emanations.
There is low societal consciousness in the state and people give really small importance to the environmental issues.
Even if the undertaking is performed, economic and societal policy factors and engineerings are needed for effectual recovery.
In add-on the Lebanese electricity sector is in a deep crisis and is bing the authorities monolithic sums in the signifier of general subsides. Demand for electricity is likely to make over 4,000 MW by 2015. A 300 MW per twelvemonth betterment is needed to fulfill the increasing demand. Lebanon ‘s electricity duty degree is high by regional criterions and in relation to service quality, but excessively low to cover EdL ‘s costs. The solution is n’t merely by constructing one 20MW power works, but a reform is besides needed in the electricity sector.
The betterment of despatch, decrease of proficient losingss, the add-on of transformers, and the rehabilitation of the Zouk and Jieh power workss will increase the end product power by around 280 MW for a 5 twelvemonth payback.
Although the electricity production by this undertaking is non sufficient plenty, we should non bury that it is produced from waste and this undertaking is cut downing all the waste present and turning it into a beginning of energy.