This paper aims to research the shaping of occupational therapy together with its philosophical footing, discoursing the relationship between the doctrine of occupational therapy and pattern, including the function of the College of Occupational Therapists ( COT ) and the Health Professions Council ( HPC ) . This paper is traveling to be structured in essay signifier, get downing with a treatment of definitions of occupational therapy and the development of occupational therapy as a profession. Besides discussed will be the functions of the COT and HPC with respects to occupational therapy preparation and pattern. The HPC is the modulating organic structure of occupational healers, every bit good as 14 other wellness professions such as address and linguistic communication healers, biomedical scientists and practician psychologists. The HPC ‘s primary map is to protect the populace by ordering criterions which the wellness professions must run into in both their preparation and pattern ( HPC, 2010a ) . The COT ( besides referred to as the British Association of Occupational Therapists or BAOT ) is the professional organic structure for occupational healers and occupational therapy helpers in the United Kingdom ( COT, 2010b ) .
This function blurring and ambiguity could be seen as both a cause and consequence of the profession missing a individual, clear definition from which all organic structures can explicate occupational therapy. A individual definition that encompassed all virtues of the profession could give a clear justification of what healers do and could be used to back up their pattern. However, there are many different definitions and freshly qualified occupational healers find it difficult to explicate to carers what their profession involves ( Williams & A ; Richards, 2010 ) . The COT itself changes the definition it releases over the old ages. The current BAOT definition encompasses the thoughts of wellness and well-being obtained through business ( COT, 2010a ) . This COT definition has no reference of businesss being meaningful or purposeful which is a nucleus construct in occupational therapy. The thought of giving people nonmeaningful undertakings is outdated in modern theories so this definition has restrictions. The COT ( 2009a ) released a much broader definition which encompasses a batch more of the theory of occupational therapy and more of the footing in which it is rooted. However, the footings used in this definition are really specific to occupational therapy and if person outside of the profession were to read it, many of the footings would read as slang, rendering the definition inexplicable. On a positive note, this definition does advert carry throughing a individuals possible and their quality of life which is an thought cardinal to the doctrine of occupational therapy which many other definitions omit. The Committee of Occupational Therapy for the European Committees ( 1990 ) definition negotiations preponderantly of forestalling disablement and advancing independent map. Even though this definition is reasonably wide and embracing, these two footings rule out a certain figure of clients that an occupational healer could work with. This definition implies that merely people whose disablement can be prevented and people with the possible to work independently would be assisted by occupational therapy. However this is non the instance, occupational therapy has been applied to many countries of terrible disablements such as advanced HIV infection ( Parutti et al, 2007 ) .
Other definitions incorporate thoughts of competence and satisfaction ( Knecht-Sabres, 2010 ) analysing qualities of activities ( Larson & A ; Von Eye, 2010 ) and mundane activities and subjective and nonsubjective facets of public presentation ( AOTA, 2002 ) . So with so many differing thoughts about what should be in a definition of occupational therapy, what of import points should a good definition screen? Reed & A ; Sanderson ( 1999 ) outlined the standards a definition should run into in modern occupational therapy. These included the alone characteristic of occupational therapy, major ends, results, the population served, a sum-up of the service programmes and the procedure in which the service is delivered ( Reed & A ; Sanderson, 1999, pp. 6 ) .
One ground occupational therapy may be hard to specify as a profession worldwide is due to the cultural differences. Occupational therapy is of import in certain life facets to a peculiar population and this may non be generalisable. For illustration, in Belgium the Federation Nationale Belge des Ergotherapeutes ( FNBE ) has a definition which focuses in portion on professional business, every bit good as activities of day-to-day life and leisure ( FNBE 2010 ) . The Bangladesh Occupational Therapy Association ( BOTA ) incorporates the thoughts of curative exercising, particular equipment and particular accomplishments developing into its definition ( BOTA, 2010 ) . The Occupational Therapy Africa Regional Group ( OTARG ) is mostly focused on the rehabilitation of handicapped people in Africa ( OTARG, 2010 ) but has recognised the demand to use culturally right intercessions to their clients dependent on what that specific part requires as many of the states that are portion of OTARG are destitute and there is a important deficiency of resources available ( Crouch, 2010 ) . These cultural differences are declarative of the comprehensiveness to which occupational therapy can be used yet how it can do happening a individual definition for the profession practically impossible to trap down.
Finding a definition that utilises all of the constructs built-in in occupational therapy is besides hard due to the fact that the profession is of all time altering and germinating. George Barton encapsulated one of the earliest definitions of occupational therapy in its history:
“ OT is the scientific discipline of instructing and promoting the sick in such labors as will affect those energies and activities bring forthing a good curative consequence. ” A ( Barton, 1919, pp.62 )
Although this definition was over 80 old ages ago, much of what was in this definition is still applicable to occupational therapy today, nevertheless the profession has been through some major passages since. The foundations were grounded in a figure of historical influences such as the humanistic disciplines and trades motion, the influence of the Religious society of friendss and the mental hygiene motion, amongst others ( Reed & A ; Sanderson, 1999 ) . One of the most influential nevertheless was the moral intervention motion, borne out of the humanistic frame of mention which introduced the construct of work holding a positive consequence on wellness ( Soderback, 2009 ) . The first paradigm of occupational therapy reapplied the moral intervention ideals in caring for ailment and handicapped people. The nucleus beliefs of this paradigm focused on the occupational nature of human existences and the interrelatednesss between the organic structure, head and environment ( Kielhofner, 2009 ) . Some of the nucleus accomplishments and procedures of occupational therapy that are used today could hold been built-in in the profession since the really first paradigm such as utilizing activities as curative intercessions and appraisals of the occupational public presentation of clients ( COT, 2009b ) . In the late 1940 ‘s occupational therapy was swept into reductionist ideals and a demand for a theoretical principle. This new paradigm is referred to as the mechanistic paradigm and – utilizing the biomedical frame of mention – focused mostly on what could be measured quantitatively and scientifically, peculiarly with ; the systems in the organic structure, the neuromotor control and muscuoskeletal public presentation ( Kielhofner, 2009 ) . Some nucleus accomplishments of occupational therapy are rooted in the chief thoughts of the mechanistic paradigm such as enablement and environmental versions ( COT, 2009b ) . Certain phases of the procedure of occupational therapy could hold been developed through the beliefs of the mechanistic paradigm excessively, in peculiar the appraisal phase which involves measuring clients strengths, failings, environments and support systems. Another phase which could be linked to the mechanistic paradigm is the intercession phase. This involves prosecuting in activities that have been analysed, graded and sequenced ( Larson & A ; Von Eye, 2010 ) which is besides a quantitative and reductionist ideal. The scientific facet of the paradigm did better set up the profession with the World Federation of Occupational Therapists being inaugurated in Stockholm in 1952 ( Soderback, 2009 ) . The mechanistic paradigm, nevertheless, lost sight of the beginnings of occupational therapy ; that business was cardinal to the profession and that battle in business can be good to wellness and well-being. Mary Reilly, a cardinal figure in the profession in 1962 gave a seminal talk and definition that was to alter the mentality of the profession one time once more:
“ Man, through the usage of his custodies, as they are energised by his head and will, can act upon the province of his ain wellness. ” ( Reilly, 1962, pp. 2 )
This direct quotation mark encapsulates the alteration that ended the mechanistic paradigm of occupational therapy and recognised the demand to return business to the Centre of occupational therapy ( Molineux, 2004 ) . Following the mechanistic paradigm, a new paradigm emerged which Kielhofner ( 2009 ) coined the modern-day paradigm. This paradigm is that in which occupational therapy is practiced today. This focuses on the belief that business is cardinal to wellness and well-being and the profession should concentrate on occupational demands and how neuromotor and musculoskeletal restrictions affect a clients occupational public presentation, as opposed to what the restrictions are. This paradigm focuses on the interrelatednesss between a individual, their environment and their business ( Kielhofner, 2009 ) . There are, nevertheless, some new thoughts that were non built-in in the original paradigm such as the client-centred frame of mention and the usage of client-centred pattern. In 1919, Barton wrote that “ the patient can non be trusted to choose his ain business ” ( Barton, 1919, pp. 20 ) . In the modern-day paradigm, client-centred pattern defines the client as holding more of a pick and more power in the client-therapist relationship ( Sumsion, 2006 ) and Bartons thoughts would non be acceptable. There are three chief functions that have been identified as of import for occupational healers ; the curative function, the confer withing function and the squad member function ( Soderback, 2009 ) . These functions are reasonably modern thoughts that are borne out of the beliefs of the latest paradigm.
The COT became a member of the World Federation of Occupational Therapists in 1952 ( WFOT, 2010 ) when it was foremost set up during the mechanistic paradigm. The function of the COT is to put professional guidelines which occupational healers and pupils must adhere to in pattern, with respects to serve user public assistance, proviso of the service, personal and professional unity, competency, continual professional development and developing the grounds base of the profession ( COT, 2010a ) . The HPC province they protect the populace by holding professional criterions and guidelines that must be met by the professions that they govern ( HPC, 2010a ) . They have a registry of all of their wellness professionals which members of the populace can look into to do certain any professional working with them is registered, qualified and competent ( HPC, 2010b ) . The HPC besides deals with all disciplinary affairs and has three different commissions for covering with fittingness to rehearse hearings with registered professionals ; the behavior and competency commission, the wellness commission and the investigating commission ( HPC 2010c ) . Equally good as protecting the populace against unqualified practicians, the guidelines put in topographic point could besides be to protect the profession against examination or discredit. The COT and HPC are an built-in portion of rehearsing as an occupational healer and pupils are provided with their ain transcript of the COT Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct to read and digest. However, a large job of the pupils of occupational therapy and other professions one time qualified is the theory/practice divide ; a pupil can hold all the theoretical cognition needed but lack the ability to efficaciously use that cognition to pattern. Core countries in occupational therapy that are limited due to a deficiency of pattern experience include client-centred attention, enhanced clinical logical thinking accomplishments, the development and usage of a curative relationship and a deep grasp of the individual, environment and business impact ( Knecht-Sabres, 2010 ) . It may be said that this deficiency of practical experience is due to the rigorous guidelines of instruction in the COT. A big organic structure of cognition has to be understood in order to measure up and register as an occupational healer. However the COT besides have guidelines about how much clinical experience a pupil needs before they can measure up so they do recognize the demand for practice-based acquisition and integrate it every bit much as possible. Once qualified, the COT and HPC guidelines on continual professional development province that a registrant must go on acquisition and be up to day of the month with policy, guidelines and research. This aims to guarantee that patterns do non go out-of-date which would widen the divide between nucleus theory and pattern. The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct ( COT, 2010a ) being handed out to all pupils and professionals is a good footing for pupils to get down from before their pattern arrangements, yet it may be difficult to practically use what is in the Code until it is ingrained in 1s cognition of how to use it in pattern. One manner suggested in which to bridge the theory and pattern divide whilst larning in an establishment with limited clinical experience is a good usage of brooding pattern. Reflecting in action during an intercession every bit good as reflecting on action ( Schon, 1983 ) can heighten advanced clinical logical thinking accomplishments which would assist bridge the divide ( Knecht-Sabres, 2010 ) .
In decision, occupational therapy is a valid and of import pattern when used in conformity of the Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct and the HPC guidelines. These guidelines are in topographic point to safeguard clients and besides the healers themselves against practising at an unqualified criterion. These guidelines make it possible to further, justify and develop the profession and supply a definition or definitions in which to explicate occupational therapy. There are, nevertheless, a big sum of criterions to see which 1 can read but will non go deep-rooted unless returned to repeatedly or learned and used in context. The true benefit of occupational therapy can acquire lost amongst the criterions and guidelines as they can take to a deficiency of clinical experience, a deficiency of reflecting in-action and possibly issues of client-centred pattern. One illustration is: if a client wants to work on their planned intercessions tardily but it would disrupt with record-keeping due to clip limitations a healer would hold to decline as record-keeping is an of import portion of COT guidelines, but this would non be purely client-centred pattern. Besides a clients ‘ thought of a good quality of life may be different to that of the COT and HPC and it is the duty of the healer to put out guidelines of what is acceptable, irrespective of client pick. The profession, as shown in this paper is besides ever-evolving and developing. It could be hard to stay by the criterions if the criterions themselves are ever-changing. This is where continual professional development is a good pattern in get the better ofing this issue. The COT besides sends out free transcripts of the British Journal of Occupational Therapy and the OT News, enabling all members to maintain up to day of the month with modern thoughts and research.