The aim of this study is to plan the Electric Vehicle ( EV ) bear downing station power flow strategy with battery use. This design is based on the ‘time of usage ‘ pricing system for residential and concern electricity. It helps to cut down the cost of bear downing and power grid impact. The expected result of this thesis is the impact of the system by comparing the recharge cost. It besides compares the bear downing cost between work topographic point, place and EV bear downing station to happen out the sustainability of EV bear downing station. The elaborate computation such as losingss and ingestion appraisal are based on EV gross revenues volume appraisal.
Introduction of vehicle addition the flexibleness, mobility and independency of people and go an indispensable portion of human life. For last century, the vehicle figure is increased quickly and it still shows about 3.0 % additions for last 5 old ages [ 1 ] . This rapid addition of vehicle provides benefit, but it leads a serious environmental job due to the gas emanation of the vehicles. Therefore, about every major auto-maker is ready to present Electric Vehicle ( EV ) , Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( HEV ) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle ( PHEV ) to halt the pollution and to run into consumers need. The EV is predicted to be a major conveyance system and the EV bear downing station is the cardinal substructure to follow EV to the consumer.
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The purpose of this thesis is to
To supply an account of EV to assist apprehension.
To plan EV bear downing station power flow strategy with use of battery and photovoltaic system.
To compare the cost of bear downing between place, workplace and bear downing station based on the clip.
An electric vehicle is non a new construct. The innovation of electric vehicle is in the early twentieth century in the same blink of an eye with gasolene vehicle. The electric vehicle was preferred pick than the internal burning, but the rapid development of internal burning engine and other background grounds such as decreased oil monetary value, driving scope and innovation of electric get downing motor which aid to get down the engine without the manus zigzaging [ 2 ] . These made gasolene engine become an industry criterion and the gasolene vehicles are increased exponentially in last century [ 3 ] . However, the environmental pollution that gasolene vehicles are making is a serious job in twenty-first century. Thus the chief concern of automotive industries is the usage of fuel efficient and environment friendly vehicles. There are many options such as tight natural gas ( CNG ) , electricity, fuel cell vehicles, intercrossed vehicles ( HEV ) and biodiesel, but electricity is considered as the simplest and easiest option to travel [ 4 ] . Harmonizing to Better Place, 39 % of Australian involvement in purchasing electric vehicle as their following vehicle, this research performed non merely in Australia besides the other developed state such as U.S. Israel, Denmark and Canada. It shows that consumers are ready to travel beyond gasolene and the electric vehicles is credited as following chief watercourse vehicle [ 5 ] .
3.1 Electric Vehicle Battery Types
3.1.1 Lead-acid Battery
The lead-acid batteries are widely used as electrical energy storage in the EV. The advantages of the lead-acid are low-priced, high power capableness and good rhythm. The disadvantages are low specific energy which is about 40kW/kg and hapless temperature features. The low energy denseness has important consequence on the concluding mass of electric vehicle and when the temperature is below 10a„? , its specific power and energy are decreased, which in bend bounds the operation of vehicle in cold conditions. However, recent progresss in battery efficiency, capacity, stuffs, safety, toxicity and lastingness are likely car-sized EVs [ 6 ] .
3.1.2 Nickel-Metal Hybrid Battery
Nickel-metal hydride batteries characteristic are now considered a comparatively mature engineering. The advantage of nickel-metal intercrossed battery is high power, environmental friendliness, level discharge profile and rapid recharge capablenesss. It attains specific energy of 70 to 95Wh/kg and a specific power of 200 to 300W/kg. However, the initial cost of nickel-metal loanblend is comparatively high and it may hold memory consequence and may be exothermal on charge. This battery is being used in HEV by Toyota Prius and Honda Insight [ 6 ] .
3.1.3 Lithium-Ion Battery
Lithium-ion battery which is widely known through its usage in laptops and consumer electronics is the most promising battery of the hereafter. Although still at the development phase, the Li-ion battery has already gained credence for EV and HEV applications. There are three types of lithium-ion battery which are nickel-based, cobalt-based and manganese-based. The nickel-based Li-ion battery has 120kW/kg of energy. The cobalt-based has higher specific energy and energy denseness, but has a higher cost and important addition in the self-discharge rate. The manganese-based type has the lowest cost and its specific energy and energy denseness prevarication between those of the cobalt- and nickel-based types. It is anticipated that the development of the Li-ion battery will finally travel to the manganese-based type because of the low cost, copiousness, and environmental friendliness of the manganese-based stuffs [ 6 ] .
3.2 EV Gross saless Volume Appraisal
The EV has non been introduced to consumer in the Australian market. Merely Mitsubishi brought the i-MiEV which is used as fleet vehicle for proving and publicizing intent. Nissan is ready to establish their full electric vehicle ‘LEAF ‘ is the beginning of 2012 [ 7 ] . Thus, the appraisal would merely be a unsmooth anticipation of gross revenues volume. The method of appraisal will be based on gross revenues volume of Prius, Toyota in Australia and expected monetary value of EV besides considered. The appraisal analysis will supply three possible scenarios. There are the highest growing, mean growing and lowest growing.
Figure – Historical gross revenues volume of prius, worldwide
Figure – Historical gross revenues volume of prius, Australia
The above graphs show the gross revenues volume of the Prius in worldwide and Australia from 1998 to 2008 and 2001 to 2008 severally [ 8 ] . It provides the tendencies of exponential addition of intercrossed vehicle gross revenues volume. The mean one-year volume addition is 40 % in worldwide and 72 % in Australia. It is assumed that the gross revenues volume of EV will follow this tendency. Price of EV is non confirmed yet, Nissan Australia is taking for a entire cost of ownership equivalent to the Tiida and this is about $ 20,000 to $ 30,000 [ 9 ] and other makers are besides aiming the same monetary value. The starting monetary value of the Toyota Prius is $ 39,990 [ 8 ] . Therefore, expected one-year gross revenues volume of EV would be higher than HEV. The mean one-year vehicle volume addition in Australia is approximately 2.5 to 3 % [ 1 ] . With the respect of monetary value, it shows that the Prius gross revenues volume addition is steep and be grounds for immense success of EV in future.
Figure – EV SALES volume anticipation
The projection is based on the above information and EV theoretical accounts which are expected to be launched within 5 old ages. The launching clip would different, but assume it as three theoretical accounts and therefore the entire figure of EV would be three times to above volume to do simple appraisal.
The first projection, which is highest growing, is 80 % addition yearly. Therefore, when it reached to 2020, the possible figure of electrical vehicle will be 35,705 for individual theoretical account and 107,115 in entire. Vehicle gross revenues volume in 2009 is 937,328 and see with this factor the market portion of electric vehicle is 11.43 % [ 10 ] .
The 2nd projection, which is mean growing, is 70 % addition yearly. Therefore, when it reached to 2020, the possible figure of electrical vehicle will be 20,160 for individual theoretical account and 60,480 in entire. Vehicle gross revenues volume in 2009 is 937,328 and see with this factor the market portion of electric vehicle is 4.32 % [ 10 ] .
The 3rd projection, which is minimal growing, is 60 % addition yearly. Therefore, when it reached to 2020, the possible figure of electrical vehicle will be 10,995 for individual theoretical account and 32,985 in entire. Vehicle gross revenues volume in 2009 is 937,328 and see with this factor the market portion of electric vehicle is 3.52 % [ 10 ] .
3.3 Better Place Electric Vehicle Network
Better topographic point is a company that is be aftering to put up an electric vehicle web on the east seashore of Australia. The web will be a complete system supplying autos, energy supply and bear downing substructure. Below are the inside informations of Better Place ‘s program:
Cars – Major car manufacturer are developing and presenting EVs to supply wide scope of options to the consumers. Batter Place is working with the Renault-Nissan confederation and the program is to supply a scope of autos that are compatible with Better Place program.
Batteries – The lithium-ion battery will be used for an EV and the charging clip is approximately 4 to 8 hours at place or work, if they plug in the EVs. With speedy courser it takes 30mins to reload it to 80 % province.
Switch Station – The battery switch Stationss help to minimise the clip of recharge. The switch procedure takes less clip than a halt at the gas station and the driver and riders may stay in the auto throughout.
Charging – Charging points will be set up near auto park spaces around the metropolis so that bear downing is convenient.
EV Driver Service – This service will supply energy monitoring, planning, service and support and charging.
EV Network Software – The Bankss of batteries that will be used to hive away electricity and be kept at the trading Stationss can be used to provide electricity to the grid to run into peak demand. The web substructure will be used to make a smart grid.
Standards – These will be regulations and ordinances that will regulate the usage of the web. This includes costs and besides the supply of energy. At the minute the program is to hold the energy sourced from renewable beginnings such as air current.
Better Place could hold a immense influence on the debut and acceptance of electric vehicles in Sydney ‘s conveyance web [ 11 ] [ 12 ] .
Possible Problem with Electric Vehicles
4.1 Rare Earth Elementss Problem
Rare Earth Elements ( REEs ) A are set of stuffs which are represented by the minerals with atomic figure 57 to 71. Particularly, when REEs are in the oxide signifier, it is called as Rare Earth Oxides ( REO ) . They have alone physical, chemical and light-emitting belongingss that are used in many freshly developed engineerings. For illustration, Prius, Toyota use two lbs of Nd in its lasting magnets and besides itA uses 20 to 30 lbs of another rare Earth component, La. Therefore, the ingestion of REEs increased dramatically which is at 8 to 12 % per annum. Global demand for REEs is already outweighing supply and crisp monetary value addition is resulted. By 2012 planetary ingestion of REEs is forecast to increase by 65 % from current degrees, driven by important market growing for many applications that rely on REEs. Thus, the supply of REEs is of import issue to develop the battery and electric motor to accomplish better public presentation and efficiency for the HEV and EV [ 13 ] .
Figure – Use of rare Earth elements in HEV [ 14 ]
4.2 Lithium Demand and Supply
A concern that has been raised with electric autos is the supply and demand for Li to do lithium-ion batteries which are the most common battery pick for electric vehicles. Most of the known Li sedimentations are located in South America, while some can besides be found in Australia. Most of the Li from batteries can be recycled and with current lithium demand anticipations, supplies should easy last for the following 40 old ages [ 13 ] . Lithium can be used as a bridging engineering until better battery engineering is developed or until more Li supplies are found. If lithium-ion battery engineering is surpassed by other battery engineering in electric vehicles, lithium-ion batteries could be used in lower public presentation applications and so recycled to be reused. There are besides concerns about the supply of other rare and alien stuffs used in batteries and electric motors. Electric vehicles will significantly impact the current electricity grid. By holding a big figure of electric vehicles trusting on electrical power, more force per unit area will be put on the bing grid. It is expected that the burden forms will be different and that smart grid and bear downing engineering will hold to be implemented to command the burden on the grid.
4.3 Power Grid Impact
During the past decennary, figure of HEVs are bit by bit increased and HEVs. Now, the automotive companies are joined in forepart of the market to busy and take the market. However, this sudden addition of EVs includes HEVs would hold opportunity to do a terrible power grid impact and this might take another environmental pollution due to another building of power works to cover a burden.
The entire power generated from Australia is about 266 billion kWs hours ( TWh ) per annum. Of this gross sum, power works usage 17 TWh for themselves and another 18 TWh is lost in transmittal line. * The electricity ingestion in Australia is about 222 TWh in 2010. It provides the excess capacity of the electricity is 10 TWh and it is non adequate degree to cover sudden addition of peak burden.
However, most of possible EV users are be aftering to bear down their vehicle during the dark clip when there is plentifulness of capacity on the grid. Therefore, it would non be impact every bit much as it is predicted. Besides, the new “ smart grid ” which charge lower during the off-peak and it is introduced by assorted electricity providers will assist consumers to salvage their EV care budget. Therefore, to forestall the sudden addition of power usage, authorities and supplier demand to hold equal ordinance and rate program for the electricity ingestion for EVs
4.4 Infrastructure and Battery Life Cycle
When the EVs are introduced, substructure and battery life rhythms for the EVs have been raised as jobs. In Australia, in 2008, 78 % people are populating in separate houses and most of them include garage*** . It makes it easier for Australian to put in the courser and reload their vehicle at place. Installing the bear downing station can cover the limited figure of public bear downing station in early phase of EVs epoch and authorities could heighten installing of place bear downing dock by revenue enhancement recognition or subsidy which is enforced in U.S. already.
The 2nd job is battery life rhythm. The Nissan Leaf usage 24 kilowatt lithium-ion battery battalion as an energy beginning of the vehicle. The lithium-ion battery is light, environmentally safe and besides it has high energy denseness and low self-discharge rate. However, the cell capacity diminishes over a clip and it is instead expensive and volatile comparison to other batteries.
However, the monetary value of the battery go lower and those jobs are being resolved with the developmentA ofA batteryA technology.A Renault-Nissan confederation announce that the battery inside the Leaf will probably keep 70 to 80 per centum of their capacity after a decennary and besides theA guarantee will offer 8 old ages with 100,000 stat mis.
EV Power Flow Design Schemes
5.1 Power Smart Time-Based Pricing
Power Smart, besides known as ‘Time of Use ‘ is a new electricity pricing system which is implemented throughout the electricity web. Due to a significant addition of electricity ingestion at certain times, the coevals can run into the demand. Thus, electricity pricing varies to cut down the demand at peak clip. The tabular array below is the extremum, shoulder and off-peak clip of energy pricing in residential and concern.
Residential Energy Pricing
2pm to 8pm on working weekdays
7am to 2pm and 8pm to 10pm on working weekdays
7am to 10pm on weekends and public vacations
All other times
Table Power Smart Residential energy Rates [ 15 ]
Business Energy Pricing
2pm to 8pm on working weekdays
7am to 2pm and 8pm to 10pm on working weekdays
7am to 10pm on weekends and public vacations
All other times
Table Power Smart concern energy Rates [ 16 ]
5.2 Possible Schemes
Mass acceptance of EV will hold impact on power grid and consumers bear downing rhythm will be changed depends on the monetary value of electricity. EV bear downing station design should fulfill those alterations to minimise the jobs. The possible job of this design is life span of the battery, to guarantee the quality and life span the battery will merely be used for equal state of affairs. For the bear downing station power flow strategy, there are three possible scenarios with concern of electricity monetary value and power grid impact.
Figure Off extremum Power flow
The monetary value of electricity is inexpensive during off-peak period based on ‘time of usage ‘ system. Therefore, reload the vehicle during the off-peak is the best scenario for consumer and power grid system to minimise bear downing cost and for the efficient usage of power grid. In this strategy, EV bear downing station recharges its battery during the off-peak period from national power grid. The vehicle will be straight charged from the power grid. The battery will non be used to reload the vehicle during this period to maximise the life span of battery.
5.2.2 Peak and Shoulder without PV System
Figure extremum power flow without PV system
The peak period have the most expensive rate and use of electricity reach about maximal. During the extremum and shoulder period, EV will merely be recharged by battery system before the battery has discharged. Once the battery has discharged, it will utilize national power grid merely to reload EV and the battery will non be used to salvage battery life. It is good to utilize the battery which is big plenty to last during the peak period, but the cost of battery become expensive. Therefore, the battery type and capacity need to be decided with consideration of the needed clip, usage degree and the monetary value of battery.
5.2.3 Peak and Shoulder with PV System
To work out the job on above strategy, the loanblend system is recommended. The PV system is the 1 of the best options to see, because extremum and shoulder period are the daylight. PV system is clean, long-run and need no care [ 16 ] . Besides, if the ingestion increases, it is possible to add extra PV to run into the demands. The PV system will help the battery during the extremum and shoulder clip to last for these period. The battery is recharged by PV system during the extremum and shoulder period and it helps to increase the measure of battery consumed to last extremum and shoulder period. The job of this system is weather dependent system and when the battery is discharged in this state of affairs, the bear downing cost will be truly expensive.
Figure extremum power flow with PV system
The full system has two chief power beginnings. This system is alteration of grid tied PV system. The PV system generates the power during the daylight when the monetary value of electricity is most expensive when ‘the smart grid system ‘ is applied. The energy generated from the PV system will be stored in the battery bank and the DC beginning from the battery will be converted into individual stage AC beginning to bear down the EV and when the battery is discharged, the switch will be turned on to utilize the electricity from the power grid. This system does non necessitate any excess charging cost after installing when few conditions are satisfied. For the PV system and battery bank, commercial available theoretical account will be used and the courser specifications are referred from the Leaf specification. Therefore, the switch and the accountant will be designed for this undertaking.
Sealed Lead Acid Battery
6.1.1 Battery Type & A ; Capacity
Typical demands for a battery system to be used for long term storage are long life rhythm, low self-discharge, long responsibility rhythm, high charge storage efficiency, low cost and simple care. In this undertaking, the most of import facet to choose the battery is the low cost, long life-span and handiness. There are assorted types of battery on the market and sealed lead-acid is the most popular battery bank for the PV system. The lead-acid battery offer the best balance of capacity and cost. Lead-acid battery cells consist of two home bases, positive and negative immersed in a dilute sulphuric acerb solution. The positive home base, or anode, is made of lead dioxide ( Pb02 ) and the negative home base, or cathode, is made of lead. This simulation theoretical account has two manners of operation: charge and discharge. When the current into the battery is positive, it is in charge manner and discharge manner when the current is negative.
The battery theoretical account was based on a standard 2V lead-acid battery Simulink theoretical account.
Figure Battery Model
The battery theoretical account has the undermentioned input parametric quantities:
A. State of charge: SOC, bespeaking available charge.
B. Depth of charge: DOC.
( Note: battery capacity depends on charge or discharge rate. )
C. Number of 2V cells in series: N
D. Charge/discharge battery efficiency: Kelvin
E. Battery self-discharge rate: D ( h-1 )
*Note: parametric quantities D and E are empirical invariables that depend on the battery features.
The province of charge ( in % ) has a really additive relationship to the open-circuit terminal electromotive force of the battery. SOC1 can be estimated based on the current open-circuit terminal electromotive force of the battery. The relationship can be estimated utilizing Table.
State of Charge ( % )
0 ( Wholly Discharged )
Table Relationship between open-circuit battery electromotive force and province of charge.
The terminal electromotive force of the battery is measured by electromotive force detector and it is given by:
Vbat = V1 + Ibat X R1 ( 2.1 )
where V1 and R1 are governed by a different set of equations depending on which manner of operation the battery is in. Valuess for the battery current ( Ibat ) are positive when the battery is in charge manner and negative when the battery is in discharge manner.
Charge Mode [ 5 ]
with SOC ( T ) as the current province of charge ( % ) . SOC ( T ) will be defined by a set of equations subsequently on in the subdivision.
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Discharge Mode [ 5 ]
The most hard portion of the battery theoretical account is accurately gauging a value of SOC ( T ) . The appraisal of the PSpice theoretical account is described by the undermentioned equation:
where all the parametric quantities have already been defined.
This is fundamentally the energy balance equation calculating the value of the SOC increase as the energy increase in a derived function of clip taking into history self-discharge and charge discharge efficiency. For this equation, clip is assumed to hold units of seconds so some footings must be divided by 3600 so that SOC is in Wh. This value can be altered to counterbalance for clip units of proceedingss ( 60 ) , hours ( 1 ) , or any other increase ( divisions/hour ) . For my first simulations, I chose to utilize units of clip in proceedingss, simplifying the equation to:
This equation can be farther simplified by replacing V chiropteran as a map of
It is necessary to utilize integrating to work out for SOC ( T ) :
With T as the figure of clip units. Therefore, SOC ( T ) can be found if you know the old status. Since SOC ( O ) = SOC 1 = initial province of charge, SOC ( 1 ) can be found, and by looping the consequence with Simulink, we can gauge the current value for SOC ( T ) for any 1.
The capacity of the battery is in Ampere-hour ( Ah ) and it can be converted into Watt-hour by multiplying the electromotive force of the battery. To happen the battery which will be used in the system, the burden ingestion needs to be figured out. This will assist to happen the Depth of Discharge ( DOD ) of a battery which determines the fraction of power can be withdrawn from the battery. The burden will pull 30A for 8 hours when the auto is to the full discharged. Therefore, the size of the battery is 30A Ten 8 hours = 240 Ah. With consideration of
The burden draw 3.3kW with 240V and the current will be 13.75A. The normal lead-acid battery electromotive force is about 12V
All EVs are charged during the peak hr Assumed excess burden due to EVs is base the computation below,
Average day-to-day travel distance of rider vehicle = 13.9 kilometer
Energy ingestion of Leaf = 211 W/km
The figure of registered vehicles in Australia = 16 million
Therefore, the entire figure of vehicles in Australia is 16,061,098 which is about 16 million and the figure of rider vehicles are 12,269,305 in 2010. *** Specifically, in NSW, there are 4,681,471 which is about 4.7 million vehicles. If 10 % of those vehicles proprietor switched to EVs, so the figure of EVs will be 1.6 million in full Australia and 470 1000s EVs will be on the street.
6.1.2 Battery Simulation Model
This is the Simulink theoretical account of standard 12V lead acid battery.
6.2 Solar Panels
The typical commercial solar panel faculty is consists with screen printed Si solar cell. It has, normally, 36 cells in series and besides it is compatible with 12V battery. The EVs consume 3.67 kW daily and it is about 110 kilowatts per month. Therefore, the panel demand to bring forth at least 110 kilowatts per month and 150 kilowatt is required value for the stable operation from the above analysis. The
6.3 National Power Grid
6.4 EV Charger
The mean travel distance of rider vehicles is 13.9 km per twenty-four hours in Australia. The Nissan U.S.A announce that the energy ingestion of the Leaf will be 34 kWa?™h/100miles and it is 0.211 kWa?™h/km. To be conservative on this fact, the efficiency of the motor is assumed as 80 % and the concluding value has become 264 Wa?™h/km. With the mean impulsive distance of the twenty-four hours, it will devour 3.67 kWa?™h/day. The courser from the Nissan provide about 3.3 kilowatts to bear down 24 kW battery battalion inside the Leaf which will takes about 7-8 hours to to the full reload.
6.5 Power Inverter
AnA inverterA is an electrical device that convertsA direct currentA ( DC ) toA jumping currentA ( AC ) ; the born-again AC can be at any needed electromotive force and frequence with the usage of appropriate transformers, exchanging, and command circuits.
Solid-state inverters have no moving parts and are used in a broad scope of applications, from smallA exchanging power suppliesA in computing machines, to largeA electric utilityA high-voltage direct currentA applications that transport bulk power. Inverters are normally used to provide AC power from DC beginnings such asA solar panelsA orA batteries.
There are two chief types of inverter. The end product of aA modified sine waveA inverter is similar to aA square waveA end product except that the end product goes to zero Vs for a clip before exchanging positive or negative. It is simple and low cost ( ~ $ 0.10USD/Watt ) and is compatible with most electronic devices, except for sensitive or specialised equipment, for illustration certainA optical maser pressmans. AA pure sine waveA inverter produces a about perfect sine moving ridge end product ( & lt ; 3 % A entire harmonic deformation ) that is basically the same as utility-supplied grid power. Thus it is compatible with all AC electronic devices. This is the type used in grid-tie inverters. Its design is more complex, and costs 5 or 10 times more per unit power ( ~ $ 0.50 to $ 1.00USD/Watt ) . [ 1 ] A The electrical inverter is a high-powerA electronic oscillator. It is so named because earlyA mechanical AC to DC convertersA were made to work in contrary, and therefore were “ inverted ” , to change over DC to AC.
The inverter used in this system is for invert 12 DC end product of battery into 240 AC to provide energy to electric vehicle courser. There are assorted courser available, typical coursers for the Leaf will pull 3.3kWh. The size of inverter should be 10 to 20 % above the burden degree, so 4 kilowatt will be the size of the inverter.
6.5.1 Power Inverter Type
6.5.2 Inverter Simulation Model
6.6 Controller & A ; Switch over
On this thesis, MATLAB will be used as simulator. Simulink is inside the MATLAB which offer an environment for multi-domain simulation and model-based design for dynamic and embedded systems. It provides an synergistic graphical environment.
7.1 Calculations and Consequences
8.1 Capital Cost Analysis
Future Work and Possibilities
Electric vehicle, which has dependable, low-cost, and environmental power beginning, grows more with the support of the populace, the federal authorities, and the provinces. The EV bear downing station will play the most of import function in mass acceptance of EV. The background cognition of EV and electricity pricing information which found from this study will be used to execute the computation and cost comparing of bear downing in assorted locations on thesis B.
1. Further literature reappraisals and gather detailed informations from automotive industries
2. Capital cost analysis
3. Consumption Estimation and PV system analysis
4. Make database and execute computations ( i.e. losingss )
5. Compute and compare the monetary value of bear downing with different country
6. Research future engineerings and recommendation ( i.e. Solar-roadway )
7. Write Report