In the last decennaries, the touristry industry in Mauritius has come to an unequivalent addition. Tourism is the 3rd pillar of the Mauritanian economic system behind Export Processing Zone and sugar sectors. Tourist reachings in 2010 reached 934,827, stand foring an addition of 7.3 % compared to 871,356 in 2009. The Government of Mauritius has given hotels high precedence so as to enable sustainable development in this sector.
Mauritius has marketed itself as being an sole finish due to its dramatic beauty. It is one of Africa ‘s wealthiest states as its economic system depends on sugar, fabrics and touristry but as sugar monetary value has decreased drastically, the Government is concentrating chiefly on the touristry industry. The expected per centum of Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) derived from this latter is 4.5 and a current gross sum of US $ 100 million per twelvemonth, where 66 % of the market is from Europe, from France we have 175,400 and 58,700 tourers from UK. About 17,111 people are working in the touristry sector and about 65 % plants in hotels.
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The touristry sector ; hotels, uses a big measure and assortment of goods during building and their operation. The scope of goods used, covers most of the fabricating base of the economic system get downing from constructing stuffs, furniture and adjustments. In 2007, 40 kilometer of our coastal country were occupied by hotels which represented 13 % of the sum of 322 kilometers.
Natural and adult male – made environment is of import to tourism as their relationship is really complicated, that is all the activities related to touristry can hold negative effects on the environment. These impacts are connected with the edifice of roads and airdromes and of touristry installations such as hotels, eating houses, resorts, stores, golf classs and marinas. Hence the negative impacts of touristry development can finally destroy the different environmental assets on which it depends.
Fortunately, touristry besides has some advantageous impacts on the environment such as lending to environmental protection and preservation. It can be used as a tool to heighten protection of natural countries and to increase their economic importance.
Negative impacts from the touristry industry occurs when the degree of visitant usage is higher than the environment ‘s ability to get by with this usage, therefore uncontrolled monolithic touristry creates possible menaces to many natural countries worldwide.
Some of the possible menaces that can ensue from this force per unit area are ;
Discharges into the sea.
Natural home ground loss.
Increased force per unit area on endangered species.
Extreme susceptibleness to forest fires.
Strain on H2O and electricity resources.
Negative IMPACTS OF THE TOURISM INDUSTRY:
Water resources are one among the chief negative impacts originating from the touristry industry. By and large, the touristry industry overuses H2O for many of their activities offered to the tourers such as ; for swimming pools, golf classs and for many other amusements including personal utilizations.
The overexploitation of H2O resources can ensue in lacking of H2O and the debasement of H2O supplies therefore increasing the coevals of waste H2O. It has been seen in dry parts like for illustration ; the Mediterranean, there is a is issue of scarceness of H2O present due to overdrive of H2O by touristry where the sum of day-to-day usage can run up to 440L.
In recent old ages, the popularity of golf touristry has increased therefore heightening the figure of golf classs. These golf classs require a immense sum of H2O day-to-day which can finally ensue in H2O scarceness. Over pumping of Wellss can do saline invasion into land H2O. Often these golf classs are situated near or in protected countries or where resources are limited, therefore increasing the negative impacts on the environment. For illustration ; an mean golf class in Thailand, a tropical state, requires 1500kg of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and weedkillers yearly and every bit much H2O as 60,000 villagers.
In add-on to H2O resources, the touristry industry creates large force per unit area on local resources like energy, nutrient and other natural stuffs. Hence, the demand placed upon these resources is really high so as to cover maximal outlooks of the tourers. Like for illustration ; proper warming, hot H2O and much more.
Electricity is really utile in hotels as it gives light, powers contraptions and heat suites. There are a thousand of lamps in a hotel that requires electricity and besides the kitchen section which overuse this resource for all its activities. Electricity in itself is non harmful to the environment but the fuel necessary to bring forth it can be extremely unsafe in destructing the environment. Hence the addition in electricity ingestion merely feeds this job.
The chief fuels beginnings use to bring forth electricity are coal, natural gas which release a big sum of C dioxide while firing. As the environment can non maintain up with this big sum of C dioxide, the latter contributes hence to planetary heating. Coal combustion can ensue in holding acerb rain, polluted water partings and a assortment of wellness jobs in worlds and animate beings. Besides if this ingestion of electricity goes on increasing, it will stop up ensuing in the depletion of our natural gases.
Important land resources include fertile dirt, woods, wetlands and wildlife which have all been disturbed and destroyed by the sudden addition in building for touristry installations. The direct impact of touristry installations on natural resources is caused by the usage of land for adjustment and the usage of edifice and stuffs such as wood. Forests frequently suffer from deforestation and land glade. Coastal wetlands are frequently drained due to miss of more suited sites.
Adding to all these negative impacts above, the touristry industry can do the same assortments of pollution as any other industry as for illustration ; fabric.
Some of these types of pollution being farther elaborated are:
Solid waste and littering.
Release of sewerage.
Oil and chemicals.
Conveyance by air, route and rail goes on increasing due to the lifting in the figure of tourers and the installations they easy get to travel from one topographic point to another. The per centum of touristry traveling by air is more than 60 % . It has been demonstrated in a survey that a individual transatlantic return flight emits about half the C dioxide green goods by the other beginnings ( auto usage, illuming ) on norm per individual yearly.
Air emanation emitted from conveyance has impacts on the planetary degree as there is emanation of C dioxide due to energy usage and this can extremely lend to severe local air pollution and noise pollution due to the usage of aeroplanes, autos, coachs and cars. All these activities non merely do irritation, emphasis and hearing loss but besides cause hurt to wildlife hence devising animate beings alter their natural activity form.
“ For illustration, a study has shown that in winter 2000, 76,271 people entered Yellowstone National park on snowmobiles, outnumbering the 40,727visitors who came in autos, 10,779 in snow managers and 512 on skis ”
SOLID WASTE AND LITERING
Waste disposal is a terrible job in countries where there are high concentrations of touristry activities and improper disposal can be a major loot of the natural environment, for illustration ; rivers, scenic countries and waysides.
Solid wastes and littering can do injury to the physical facet of the H2O and shoreline, therefore can destruct the lives of Marine animate beings. For illustration ; patrol car lines in the Caribbean can bring forth more than 70,000 dozenss of waste yearly
During trekking activities, tourers generate a big sum of waste. On their expedition or journey, they leave behind their refuse, O cylinders and bivouacing equipment. Such patterns help in the beforehand debasement of the environment. On norm, riders on a sail vas generate 3.5kg of refuse per twenty-four hours.
Sewage pollution has been increased by the building of hotels, diversion and other installations. The vegetation and zoology has been damaged as waste H2O has polluted seas and lakes environing tourer attractive forces. Sewage pollution threatens the wellness of worlds and animate beings as it stimulates the growing of algae, which cover the filter- eating corals forestalling their ability to last. In Mauritius the sewerage system is non compulsory.
Aesthetic pollution occurs when touristry fails to incorporate its constructions with the natural characteristics of the finish. Most of the clip, big, ruling resorts of different designs may look out of topographic point in any natural countries. Lack in land usage planning and edifice ordinances has lead to sprawling developments along coastlines, vales and scenic paths. The conurbation includes back uping substructures like roads, employee lodging, parking, service countries, and disposal of waste and touristry installations. Construction activities can affect sand excavation, beach and sand dune eroding.
Now go forthing the general facets of touristry impacts on the environment, we are traveling to see how different units within hotels contribute severally to the debasement of the natural environment.
Harmonizing to the Initial Environmental Review, a hotel ‘s facets and impacts should be determined. Below is an input – end product diagram demoing the inputs and end products to different unit processes within a hotel.
aˆ? Energy ( Electricity, steam etc )
aˆ? Running of DG set, boiler
aˆ? Maintenance of equipments
aˆ? Air emanations
aˆ? Noise coevals
aˆ? Solid waste ( Tins, tins,
composition board )
aˆ? Energy ( Electricity, Steam )
aˆ? Packaging Material ( Plastic, Paper, composition board )
aˆ? Waste H2O
aˆ? Solid waste ( fictile, chemicals, paper, composition board )
aˆ? Raw nutrient stuff ( veggies, meat )
aˆ? Chemicals ( for rinsing )
aˆ? Energy ( electricity, LPG, steam )
aˆ? Waste H2O
aˆ? Vegetable bit
aˆ? Packaging waste ( bottles, sachets )
aˆ?Left out nutrient waste
aˆ? Water ( cleaning bathrooms, wipe uping )
aˆ? Chemicals ( cleaning & A ; smoothing )
aˆ? Changing of linen
aˆ? Keeping guest comfortss
aˆ? Waste H2O
aˆ? Soiled linen
aˆ? Packaging waste
aˆ? Used decorative bottles, soapsaˆ¦
Mention: Environmental Management System in Hotels
Clean Technology Initiative ( USAID )
In order to be able to counter these environmental impacts of the touristry industry several Green plans have been developed internationally which are viz. :
British Airways Holidays ( BAH ) sustainable environmental patterns
Costa Rica ‘s enfranchisement for sustainable touristry ( CST )
Green Globe 21
HAC Green Leaf
HVS Eco Services
Touristic Union International ( TUI )
For the range our survey we have developed the Green Globe 21 enfranchisement plan.
Green Globe 21 covers a big graduated table of sectors for the touristry economic system like for illustration ; adjustment, air hoses, attractive forces, golf class, marinas, eating houses and much more. Green Globe 21 strategy is considered as a ego ordinance system and is worldly recognized with the touristry industry which facilitates sustainable travel and touristry for consumers, companies and communities. It was foremost established in 1994 by the World Tourism and Travel Council ( WTTC ) and the International Hotel and Restaurant Association ( IH & A ; RA ) ensuing from the 1992 Earth acme in Rio. It is derived from the rules of Agenda 21 and ISO type criterions. Its chief mark is to better the environmental public presentation of all touristry companies. Green Earth 21 uses a series of earth look into measure indexs to measure the cardinal facets of environmental and societal public presentation of the touristry industry.
This is done based on the information acquired through industry studies and audits, instance surveies and design enchiridions.
1 ) Degrowing Tourism: Decroissance, Sustainable Consumption and Steady – State Tourism
C. Michael Hall
An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research
Volume 20, Number 1
2 ) 4L Tourism ( landscape, leisure, larning and bound ) : reacting to new motives and outlooks of tourers to better the fight of Alpine finishs in a sustainable manner
Mariangela Franch, Umberto Martini, Frederica Buffa and Gerardine Parisi.
Faculty of Economicss
University of Trento.
3 ) Do hotels ‘ “ green ‘ properties contribute to client satisfaction?
E. Robinot and J.L. Giannelloni
University of Savoie Institute of Management,
Annecy – Le – Vieux
4 ) Tourism Certification Initiatives in Africa
Dr Anna Spenceley
University of the Witwatersrand
20 January 2005
5 ) Environmental Management for Hotels
The Industry usher for best pattern
2nd Edition, 1996
In Mauritius merely a few figure of hotels have been through the Green Globe enfranchisement which are:
Labourdonnais Waterfront Hotel ( besides ISO 14001 certified )
Le Coco Beach Hotel today known as Long Beach Hotel
Sugar Beach Resort
Mentions: Pictures taken from the site google.com
There are two chief types of Green Globe 21 criterions for the hotel sector:
Finish and community criterion
For the survey our precedence is the finish and community criterion. Having right of first publications we could merely bring forth an overview of the procedure and phases involve towards run intoing the criterion.
THE GREEN GLOBE 21 DESTINATION PROCESS
The chief aim of the Green Globe 21 procedure is to develop a sustainable touristry plan for a location which consists of six cardinal stages.
The six cardinal phases of the procedure are:
Phase 1 i? SCOPING STUDY
The scoping survey requires the committedness of a lead bureau to transport out a baseline appraisal with legal authorization to accomplish Green Globe 21 position. There is besides the demand to set up the Destination Management Group comprising of stakeholders and support resources to underpin sustainability and to oversee the development and execution of the sustainable finish direction system ( SDMS ) .
Phase 2i? ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND DESTINATION VISIONING ( CREATION OF A SHARED VISION BY STAKE HOLDERS )
During this phase an environmental policy for the finish has to be created in line with the overall aim of the sustainable touristry plan and the precedence countries of action. A finish visioning plan has besides to be carried out to garner the positions of stakeholders and to utilize them in the sustainable touristry plan.
Phase 3 i? STRATEGIC ENVIRONMEMTAL ASSESSMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION PLAN
This measure involves the designation of the environmental impacts through a Strategic Environmental Assessment ( SEA ) . For each of the procedure for each cardinal public presentation countries identified will be:
Aims should be communicated to stakeholders and the communities
Consequences for existent public presentations are measured against set benchmarks
( Please observe a transcript of the Green Globe 21 benchmarking user usher has been attached as ANNEX 1 )
There is besides the demand to develop an Environmental action program which are actions for betterment by puting mark, timelines, and duties which will minimise the impacts identified in the SEA.
Phase 4 i? IMPLEMENTATION
The implementation measure involves the cardinal individual who is accountable for this phase. The members who have assigned for specific functions or occupation maps. Execution is the most critical phase of the plan has all facets find their roots in the environmental policy. It requires direction to cover with important impacts and to set up organisational construction and communicating
Phase 5 i? CAPACITIES AND TRAINING PROGRAM
Training plans have to be developed in conformity with the environmental policy to guarantee that anyone concerned with the execution of the criterion is wholly cognizant of it and requires their commitment towards its accomplishment.
Phase 6i? AWARD OF DESTINATION RECOGNITION
To be awarded there is a enfranchisement audit carried out by a 3rd hearer. Once awarded as Green Globe acknowledgment the plan requires to supervise consequences, review sporadically and marks and aims have to be redefined where appropriate. The consequence and accomplishments have to be communicated to all stakeholders. An one-year reappraisal is done by green Earth to guarantee uninterrupted betterment is being carried out in conformity with the Environmental Action Plan.
ABDALLAH W ( 2003 ) . B.Sc. Environmental Science undertaking on ‘Green Globe Standard in Mauritius: a study in the Mauritius Tourism Sector ‘ , University Of Mauritius.
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GREEN GLOBE 21 STANDARD AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTION
The touristry sector hour angle to extenuate its environmental impact to accomplish sustainable development. Nowadays many hotels are traveling for Green Globe 21 criterion which is an international accreditation for sustainable touristry direction. It helps hotels to develop plans to command the impact of their operations to better their environmental public presentation. The aim of the Green Globe is to protect the natural resources of the planetary environment and to develop a clean operational attack.
The biggest rivals for hotels are to follow and implement eco friendly patterns to command the impact of their activities. The cardinal public presentation countries that the Green Globe 21 buttockss are the environmental and societal impact. The patterns that hotels have adopted are to cut down energy ingestion, H2O ingestion and waste production. They besides have to conserve the ecosystem, the natural resources and the cultural heritage of the vicinity. They must besides command the air quality by cut downing pollution and the noise degree. The organisation needs to hold a clearly written policy that states the operations of the hotels are traveling to be sustainable and esteem the environment.
Green Globe has developed several direction plans to cut down the effects of Environmental facets.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
The organisation has to develop energy efficiency plans to devour less electricity and therefore to bring forth less nursery gases. They have to convey into usage advanced and more efficient engineerings. Furthermore they have to diminish their dependence on non- renewable energy equipments. Some patterns that the hotels can follow are:
Use of energy economy bulbs
Use of energy gas boilers
Use of energy efficiency equipment and merchandises
Install tenancy detectors or cardinal card control systems in invitees ‘ suites.
Use of solar power systems for heating H2O.
WATER MANAGEMENT Plan
Hotels have to do attempts to cut down the H2O use through their activities without compromising the operation of their concern. They can put in H2O efficiency devices and equipment to diminish the volume of H2O consume by clients during their stay. Some steps which can be taken in consideration:
Low flow or infrared- activated spigots
Low flow shower caputs
Low H2O volume lavatories
Water efficiency wash equipment
Water efficiency wash dishes
Restriction of H2O flow on usage of sprinklers in gardens and Parkss.
Recycling of H2O for irrigation intents.
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
The organisation has to minimise the sum of solid waste it produces and to cut down its ingestion of stuffs. They have to develop awareness plan on environmental patterns to employees and invitees. Some practical steps that can truly assist to minimise the sum of waste they can bring forth.
Reduce the volume of fain waste.
Develop waste to energy systems
Internal cut down and recycle of paper.
Do non publish e-mails unneeded.
Accept on-line occupation applications
Controling and recycling electronic waste.
Use of nutrient waste as animate being provender
A line and towel reuse plan
Contribution plans ( e.g. leftover guest comfortss, old furniture, and contraptions )
Purchase used or recycled content merchandises
Reuse points ( fabric, serviettes, glass cups, ceramic dishes )
Use refillable soap and shampoo dispensers
Composts of organic kitchen waste
The hotels have to utilize fewer natural resources and purchase stuffs which are environmentally sound ingredients. In this manner they are lending to continue the resources and the ecosystem. Some step which can be encouraged:
Purchase goods from green certified ( eco labels ) providers.
Purchase locally produced ingredients.
Avoid purchase that is of Cl based bleaches paper.
Use of wood from sustainable plantations.
Use biodegradable inks and dyes.
CLEANING CHEMICAL Use
Hotels can follow steps to increase the usage of goods that are eco-labeled and biodegradable. They can increase the usage of organic options ( effluent organic sludge and composted green waste ) alternatively of utilizing unreal fertilisers. The integrating of a pest direction ( microorganism to kill plagues ) and command plan. In general avoid the application of chemicals to protect the ecosystem.
BENEFITS OF GREEN GLOBE 21
The benefits that the hotels obtained after they become Green Globe certified are really positive. The hotels executive are really satisfied and acknowledge that the cost of investing worth the monetary value for their organisation. There are many benefits which allow the hotels to boom even female horse and therefore go more moneymaking.
Improvement in Cooperate image:
The hotels become really popular through the media ( local and international ) when it becomes certified. Their public image is improved with the local communities. The relationships grow with the local people.
The hotels can vie better on an international and enter new markets. It satisfies clients ‘ demands who are looking for more environmental friendly hotels services.
Improve employee satisfaction
The employees are more motivated to work for a esteemed organisation. As they are trained through the procedure of Green Globe, they perform better and therefore the service delivered is more efficient and effectual.
Fiscal costs benefits
The eco- friendly patterns adopted by the hotels such as the efficient usage of energy, cut down ingestion of H2O and better waste direction saves cost. These nest eggs chances were found to be moneymaking in the long tally. They could utilize the money saved on other countries and increase their concern public presentation.
The decreased impact of the activities on the environment contributes to sustainable development of the touristry sector. Thus there is preservation of the natural resources and ecosystems saving.
Measuring National C dioxide emanation from touristry as a cardinal measure towards accomplishing sustainable development.
The demand for Business Environment and societal duty in the touristry industry
The acceptance and execution of environmental direction systems in New Zealand, the directors ‘ position,
Burzis Homi Ustad
Green Globe, sector Benchmarking Indicators for accommodation- the way to sustainable travel and touristry,
version 3.1, January 2004
presented by Reg Easy ( power point )
Populating in an environmentally-friendly manner can assist to cut down some inauspicious impacts on the Earth. However, there are some factors linked with the construct of traveling green which can potentially be a disadvantage for those O.K.ing this life style.
DIFFICULTIES IN IMPLEMENTING GREEN GLOBE 21 STANDARD
There are some barriers to making and using a green Earth construct in hotels. The major troubles are mentioned below.
Lack of committedness of top direction
Top direction committedness is really of import and accent should be laid on it. Top direction is non sincere plenty in the execution of green Earth patterns. This mostly reduces the effectivity of the green construct. Frequent meetings may be organized to pull the attending of the top direction. In this manner, direction would maintain path with the green advancement and alterations after each and every measure.
Occasional alterations of staff and top direction
This issue is a great barrier to the patterned advance of the creative activity, design and execution of green Earth. The replacing of a trained staff with a fledgling would detain the procedure to a certain extent. Training of the fledgling would be needed in order for him to understand the civilization and green construct of the hotel.
Common belief that the benefits are lesser than the costs
Sometimes direction has the perceptual experience that the entire benefits are lesser than the costs to implement green Earth and those in footings of professional clip investing. However, many hotels found that the wage back period of return-on-investment for making, developing and implementing green Earth is on occasion less than a twelvemonth.
The proviso of unequal budgets is one of the major hindrances of developing a green Earth construct. Top direction demands to cover with green patterns as an extra development of the institutional substructure of the hotel. When fiscal resources are missing, hapless preparation consequences. Furthermore, it causes the audience and hearing of inputs that may detain green advancement and makes difficult the upholding of effectivity. It is necessary to assign equal budgets.
Resources include manpower, clip, money and equipment. Implementing green Earth requires a committedness of resources for development and care. The success of proper environmental patterns will depend on the handiness of resources, as hotels must either put in extra resources or deviate existing resources off from their current usage.
Proper execution and effectivity of a green construct is possible with the handiness of modern and up-to-date computing machine systems and other measurement tools which would assist hotels to mensurate their public presentation. There are more touchable resources that are required, along with fiscal resources, to transport out the green patterns. Resources are therefore of import standards for any hotel. Insufficient and out-of-date resources are among the barriers to the acceptance of green Earth for assorted hotels.
The demand for substructure alterations. An illustration of substructure alteration required by the execution of green patterns might be rewiring or installing of new electrical equipment to enable energy-saving lighting or warming equipment. Proper execution may good necessitate substructure investing and this may be seen as a possible barrier to implementing green Earth.
Green Earth enfranchisement is excessively high. Renewal cost for enfranchisement is frequently considered as being excessively high. Furthermore, most of the enfranchisement programmes require hotels to recertify every twelvemonth and this by and large requires payment of an one-year fee. Given that the green Earth procedure itself is seen as a dearly-won investing, an extra one-year cost for enfranchisement reclamation acts as a farther restraint for the hotels to implement green Earth.
Inadequate preparation at all degrees
In order to convey motive about green Earth, preparation should be provided at all degrees of the labour force. Inert and unresponsive preparation often prevent the successful execution of green Earth.
It is non the whole hotel which feels responsible for traveling green. This is a chief hurdle in the green procedure. The nucleus squad merely is attributed the duty, but frequently, the procedure of integrating is subsequently attained through the engagement of all sections. Functions and undertakings are usually allocated by the direction.
High execution and care cost
Traveling green requires clip, money and people. Execution costs include preparation, certification, enrollment fees, legal effects, storage of equipment/accessories, engaging specialist environmental aid, computing machine package and new staff enlisting. It includes the costs of keeping and bettering green Earth in the hotel so that the programme remains antiphonal to the hotel ‘s altering environmental fortunes and demands. Some hotel operators do engage external advisers to assist implement and design the green construct and contract with external hearers to attest conformity and this represents an extra cost for these services. The above illustrations indicate that there can be important start-up every bit good as care costs associated with green Earth and this is the most of import obstruction or barrier for its execution in hotels.
Technology is considered an expensive resource and hotels frequently feel that they need extra investing in engineering in order to be able to travel green. The success and effectivity of green Earth is possible merely if there are proper back uping tools available, including engineering tools such as power salvaging adjustments, solar power panels, computing machines and besides supervising devices to mensurate environmental patterns. Furthermore, there is frequently a deficiency of support for engineerings such as recycling or composting.
Lack of professional advice and deficiency of cognition and accomplishments
Many directors are incognizant of green Earth enfranchisement and happen it hard to understand what they are expected to accomplish in the initial phases unless there is professional advice from advisers who help in its execution and design.
There is limited cognition about the construct among top direction and this leads to a limited degree of committedness towards turning green. There are besides some implicit in factors that can be barriers to green Earth execution. These include: direction manner, top direction committedness and communicating, civilization of the hotel, invention and engineering. These cultural issues, coupled with deficiency of cognition and handiness of professional advice are besides important barriers to the acceptance of green Earth for assorted hotels.
A frequent method of traveling green is to cut down or extinguish paper usage. This can make some drawbacks. For illustration, if a worker has his laptop computing machine robbed, information may be in the ownership of the incorrect individual. If the information were locked in a file cabinet, this might non hold been the instance. Furthermore, a system clang could turn out black.
Traveling green can besides potentially have a negative consequence on the environment. For case, the development of alternate fuels is an invention in the green motion in an attempt to cut down trust on unrenewable natural resources. While these fuels are intended to cut down the toxic emanations caused by the combustion of traditional gasolene, they may hold accidentally caused the opposite consequence. One of these alternate fuels, known as E85, really releases more ozone into the ambiance than traditional fuel. While ozone is a natural portion of the Earth ‘s upper atmosphere, if it becomes concentrated in the lower ambiance, it can potentially increase air pollution in countries where smog is a concern, which can in turn impact the wellness of those populating in these countries.
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