Mining and its allied activities have taken large work stoppages during the last century lending important substructure development and raising the life criterions of world. However, they have besides brought in their aftermath, devolution and debasement of natural resources, pollution, wellness hazard and socio-ecological instabilities. Bundelkhand part, busying about 71818km2 in the cardinal planes of India, is known for its rich sedimentations of pyrophyllite, moram, salt Peter, granite, diasporas, sand, etc. Presently, there are around 325 active excavation sites in Jhansi territory entirely. Deforestation, dust coevals, H2O, air and noise pollution and resource depletion are common jeopardies associated with opencast excavation widely prevailing in this part. The present paper efforts to uncover the base line environmental quality and socio-economic scene in and around such excavation sites with particular mention to the effects on the air, H2O, alterations of land usage form and occupational wellness effects of mine workers etc. It besides attempts to supply a model for direction schemes to better the environmental conditions in the excavation sites and its adjoining environments.
The geographical location of Bundelkhand parts is such that it acted as gateway between north and south India. Administratively, it covers seven territory of Uttar Pradesh. Mining and development of mineral resources by and large have a considerable impact on the land, H2O, air, and biological resources every bit good as socio-economic scene of the local population. Its focal point are the environmental issues being confronted by the surface excavation industries of Jhansi.The magnitude of impact depends on the methods, graduated table and concentration of excavation activities, and the geological and structural scene ( Ghose and Majee 2001 ) . In India the national ambient air choice criterion ( NAAQS ) was formulated in 1994 to measure and compare the air pollution degree for different countries ( CPCB 1998 ) . Opencast excavation, widely prevalent in the Bundelkhand part, though cheaper are known to hold more environmental effects. In opencast excavation a monolithic overburden will hold to be removed for the development of the assorted sedimentations. This will necessitate excavators, transporters, stevedores, conveyer belts etc. , ensuing into assorted environmental jobs. Environmental impacts of excavation operation at single site may be local phenomena, but legion excavation sites clustered at a peculiar country may finally take to environmental jobs of larger magnitude. Large scale opencast excavation operations in the survey country disturb the land by straight taking mine wastes during digging and at the same time dumping it in next countries. Every mine, large or little, runing or new has to obtain environmental clearance from the Govt. of India ( Ghose 1991 ) . Jacko ( 1983 ) has given estimations of fleeting dust from some excavation operations. Wind blown particulate affairs of loose mine spoils and dust coevals from crushers and digging sites may impact ambient air quality in the mine and adjoin countries. Air quality position in Indian environment is dominated by suspended particulate affair ( SPM ) doing great concern to environmental contrivers ( Ravindra 1991 ) . Noise pollution, particularly which due to blaring, might be reduced by rigorous attachment to resound emanation criterions ( McClean 1992 ) . Water resources are peculiarly vulnerable to degradation even if drainage is controlled and deposits pollution reduced. Rain and drainage H2O which may impact the workss, animate beings and human populations. Groundwater jobs may be peculiarly troublesome in the semi-arid part of Bundelkhand since, H2O is a scarce resource and people rely groundwater is really hard and expensive.
Field studies were carried out in some selected mine countries ( Figure. 1 ) in Jhansi territory to roll up relevant information. Data and literature pertaining to the mineral sedimentations in the part was gathered from assorted beginnings. The information related to the position of wellness and socio-economic impacts were extracted by utilizing structured questionnaires. The respondents include indiscriminately selected mine workers and caput of households shacking in mine countries. The ambient air quality appraisals were carried out in Gora Machiya granite mine country. High volume air sampling stations ( HVS – Envirotech Ltd. , New Delhi ) were used with an mean flow rate between 1.1 – 1.3 m3 Garand rifle. The air sampling stations were kept at a tallness of 6m. Sampling was done for 24 H in 8 H intervals. SPM and RSPM were computed after weighing the glass fiber filter paper ( Schleicher and Sch & A ; uuml ; ll, Germany ) before and after trying.
Analysiss of H2O quality ( APHA 2005 ) were done by roll uping land H2O from manus pumps, pools samples from in and around mining country during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. The manus pumps were operated 10 proceedingss before roll uping the samples. Samples were collected in clean polyethylene bottles holding air tight stoppers. Information refering to the wellness effects of granite excavation on the mine workers and the local occupants in the nearby small towns were study with the aid of a structured Questionnaire. The information collected include, respiratory, oculus, hearing loss, tegument, accident and others. Assorted informal interviews with mineworkers, excavation functionaries, authorities functionaries, and local community members ( around the beginning of air pollution ) were conducted during the survey period.
3 Result and treatment
Mining in Bundelkhand part are chiefly carried out by opencut extraction method. Open dramatis personae excavation involves the remotion of overburden including the valuable surface soil and plus the natural vegetive screen to run into the ore sedimentations. These activities are associated with harmful effects to the local environment. Mining activities are carried out in assorted phases, each of them affecting specific environmental impacts. Broadly talking, these phases are: sedimentation prospecting and geographic expedition, mine development and readying, mine development, and intervention of the minerals obtained at the several installings with the purpose of obtaining marketable products.The emerging environmental jeopardies associated with unfastened dramatis personae excavation patterns are many but the major jobs may be summarized as follows:
3.1 Air Pollution
Opencast excavation operation creates tremendous measure of dust of assorted sizes which passes into transit and disperse important sum of suspended particulate affairs ( SPM ) and gaseous pollutants in to the ambiance. These pollutants non merely affect the mine workers but besides affect the nearby populations, agricultural harvests and farm animal. During the field survey it has been observe that RSPM and SPM is the major beginning of emanation from opencut granite excavation in Jhansi. The minimal and maximal value of RSPM and SPM is 155µg m-3 to 234µg m-3 ; and 393µg m-3 to 541µg m-3 severally. The extent of harmful affects depends mostly on meteoric conditions predominating in the part. Depending on the size suspended particulate affair may do ( a ) Respiratory upset in animate beings and human due to inspiration of all right atoms, ( B ) Ophthalmic disease, as particulates act as bearer of pathogens, ( degree Celsius ) Lower agricultural outputs due to obstructor of visible radiation needed for photosynthesis by the dust screen on surface bed of workss, and ( vitamin D ) Poor visibleness near crusher.
The fluctuation of SPM and RSPM in the four sampling Stationss for the month of November to January is depicted individually in Figure 2 – 4. In general the SPM burden in all the trying Stationss was more than the RSPM concentration and this is as per outlook.
3.2 Water pollution
Mining activities are known to impact both the surface and groundwater government. The local topography and drainage form may well act upon the badness of pollution. The chief beginnings of liquid wastewaters in opencast excavation are: ( a ) De-watering of mine H2O, ( B ) Spent H2O from dust extraction and dust suppressing system and ( degree Celsius ) Leachate run off from waste mopess. The H2O composing of the mine H2O chiefly depends upon the host stone composing every bit good as the mineralization procedure. By and large, sulphides incorporating minerals yield acidic mine H2O whereas in mineral bearing oxides, the pH of the H2O may travel up to 8.0. pH of the mine H2O of the country was alkalic in nature ( 7.6-8.5 ) and conduction varied between 372 and 1642 µS cm-1 ( Table – 1 ) . The mean conduction ( 1,009 µS cm-1 ) and TDS ( 839 mg l-1 ) values for mine H2O are higher as compared to the groundwater ( 864 µS cm-1 and 669 mg l-1 ) and surface H2O ( 411 µS cm-1 and 303 mg l-1 ) . Due to inordinate dirt and other structural eroding the overflow H2O contains high sum of suspended solids. These decrease the incursion of visible radiation in H2O organic structures having the overflow H2O impacting the endurance of life beings. The leachate H2O can be highly toxic incorporating heavy metals depending on the overburden composing and may foul the land H2O.
3.3 Noise Pollution
In unfastened dramatis personae excavation blasting is a common pattern which produces high strength of noise. Deafness is brought approximately by slow but progressive devolution of neuro-sensorial cells of the interior ear. Besides, noisy working environment in the excavation sites are known to ensue into communicating damages, undertaking intervention, sleep intervention, alteration in personal behaviour, etc. of the mine workers. In add-on, noise produces other wellness effects, influences work public presentation and makes communications more hard. Besides, the zoology in the woods and other countries environing the mines/industrial composite is besides effected by noise and it has by and large been believed that wildlife is more sensitive to resound and quivers than the human beings.The noise degree is relatively high in the active zones in the granite preies due to boring, blasting and the mine service Stationss. It was found to be in the scope of 96 to 125 dubnium. These are much above the bounds of 75 dubniums prescribed by WHO for twenty-four hours clip industrial countries ( WHO 1980 ) . In the granite quarries the exposure for long periods to these high degrees of noise is likely to impact the ear stop of the workers. Instantaneous volume from blaring can make 100 dubnium and quivers can be felt up to 2 kilometer distant. At 10 meters, the noise from excavators, spreaders, conveyer belts and their drive Stationss all may achieve 85-95 dubnium. Even at 1,000 meters noise beginnings of 75 dB create volume degrees every bit great as 49 dubnium ( UNECE 1988 ) .
3.4 Land debasement
Opencast excavation excavates big land countries to pull out the mineral ore and at the same clip requires immense countries to dump the mine spoils. During this class of action frequently lands under the screen of forest or agribusiness are diverted for excavation. Some of import impacts on the lands due to opencast excavation may be: ( a ) Change in topography ensuing in drastic alteration in drainage form and decrease in aesthetic value, ( B ) Slope stableness jobs triping lands slides and rapid dirt eroding, ( degree Celsius ) Rapid siltation and debasement of surface H2O organic structures and ( vitamin D ) Blanketing mine spoils in the nearby agricultural and grazing lands. A alteration of land usage form in Goramachiya small town has been shown in figure 5.
3.5 Improper disposal of mine-wastes
Dumping 0f mine wastes without proper location of will do inauspicious impact on environment. This depends on the type of mineral, the method of excavation and nature of topography around the mines. Actually in class of excavation stuffs is far more than mineral of economic value, which is utilised. The remainder is disposed at mine site. The jilted stuffs may be the overburden, inter load, side load, on the shadowing rejected after mineral extraction. This stuff is physically, chemically and structurally unstable and is to be dumped on the adjoining land country, add to be the hurtful impact prone to subsistence chemically every bit good as hydrological unstable for works growing as it carried for with H2O watercourses and degraded environment on the land in locality.
3.6 Loss of Biodiversity
One major crisis of the present twenty-four hours in Bundelkhand part is the rapid loss of biodiversity. Large scale operations of excavation activities have contributed straight or indirectly to the depletion of the biological diverseness in the part. Vegetative screens are unfastened up at assorted topographic points to hasten digging of ore, development of excavation substructure and dumping of overburdens. Removal of vegetive screen is frequently followed by monolithic dirt eroding, siltation of river and reservoirs. The direct impacts on the life beings in the excavation countries may run from decease of workss and animate beings due to mining activity or contact with toxic wastes and mine drainages, perturbation of wildlife home grounds due to blaring and heavy machines. Indirect impacts may include alterations in food cycling, break of nutrient concatenation and instability of ecosystem.
3.7 Occupational Human Health Problems
Opencast excavation is more terrible an air pollution job in comparing to underground excavation. In active excavation sites, mineworkers are persistently exposed to big concentrations of dust, gaseous pollutants, high degrees of noise and last but non the least accidents, which invariably pose a terrible menace to miner ‘s life. The information on assorted wellness effects obtained from the current study for the mine workers and the population inhabiting in and around the granite excavation site is illustrated in Figure – 6. Health jobs related to clamber and respiratory upset are widely prevailing in the country. Maximum of the respondents complain jobs related to clamber and respiratory diseases. A sum of 108 respondents have skin jobs which comprises of 74 work forces and 35 adult females. The excavation, blasting and boring of granite mine generated dust atoms of assorted sizes into the immediate ambiance. Crystalline silicon oxide is a common but variable constituent of granite. Most of this dust is normally made up of silicon oxide ( happening as Si dioxide SiO2 ) . As the excavation is increasing, workers development is besides increasing. Workers are confronting serious jobs of their wellness, supports, and minimal rewards. The most prevailing occupational diseases among the mine workers in Bundelkhand are: ( a ) Hearing jobs: Consequence of heavy noise from usage of heavy machineries and stone blasting cause audile consequence every bit good as non-auditory effects in mine workers and environing people, ( B ) Auditory impact: Auditory consequence of noise causes impairing of hearing, ( degree Celsius ) Non-Auditory impacts: These type of consequence cause loss of working efficiency due to the physiological upsets like high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and so on, ( vitamin D ) respiratory jobs: Mineral dust atoms arising from mining activities on inspiration by lungs and thereby doing a figure of concerned jobs like silicosis. These diseases are common in Goramachiya and Dagara small town of Jhansi. ( vitamin E ) Eye job: Dust atom from mining activities contribute to do of certain oculus job like pinkeye and kerato pinkeye and ( degree Fahrenheit ) Skin job: Deposition of dust atoms on tegument interrupts U.V. radiation, which causes different tegument diseases.
4. Remedial Measures
4.1 An environmental direction program ( EMP ) for sustainable excavation activities
India, nevertheless, is non a alone instance, as it is a good known fact that most excavation adversely impacts on the environment. It is compulsory to outline an environmental direction program ( EMP ) before get downing such undertakings in India. Several states have adopted different schemes for undertaking pressing environmental jobs in the industry. For effectual execution of an EMP, a mid-term disciplinary step is indispensable, such as a clip bound action program, this includes a programmed for land renewal, afforestation, mine H2O intervention, surface drainage and cheque dikes, and sewerage intervention. Development has environmental costs. Therefore, the function of the jurisprudence is to see how and where to absorb these costs to maintain amendss at a lower limit. The duty to better environmental direction remainders with the Project Officer of the undertaking. Equally far as air, H2O, noise and dirt pollution control steps are concerned ; samples are collected and tested at strategic locations during all four seasons. The implementing authorization is guided and advised as per the informations received from the research labs.
4.2 Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment ( EIA ) is one of the proved direction tools for incorporating environmental concerns in development procedure and for improved determination devising. As EIA and EMP have been made statutory demands for get downing new excavation ventures every bit good as for bing mines, ( at the clip of reclamation of excavation programs ) measures to forestall environmental debasement have become a topic of precedence with the mine directions. In the initial old ages, environmental clearance was merely an administrative demand. Since 1994, EIA and environmental clearance have been made statutory for 30 classs of developmental activities in the sectors of industry, thermic power, excavation, river-valley substructure and atomic power.
The minerals militias in the Bundelkhand part are varied and immense in measures, it is expected that the excavation activities may be intensified in future farther deteriorating the environmental quality. Proper environmental impact appraisal and some times a socio-economic impact appraisal should be carried out. Baseline information should be efficaciously incorporated in direction of the excavation sites in Bundelkhand part. For proposed excavation undertakings, it is necessary to turn to the possible environmental impact issues that may originate due to proposed excavation activities i.e. an appraisal of the possible impacts of a undertaking on the pre-mining environment. The programs required for the EIA must be at appropriate graduated tables to demo the degree of item required for the peculiar undertaking or aspect described. The economic growing and development of the state depends non merely on resource optimization but besides on environment direction. This facet of industrialisation was non envisaged by contrivers in the yesteryear.
Afforestation patterns help in reconstructing and heightening the vegetive screen in mine countries in assorted ways. For renewal through Afforestation following stock lists are the requirements such as country to be planted, incline gradient, quality of dirt, clime conditions and nature of biotic force per unit area. For plantation precedence must be given to native species in the undermentioned order, excavation sites, overburden sites and abandoned sites. Those species have to be selected holding fast turning inclination to enable to maximum canopy in short clip every bit good as difficult woody and ability to repair direct atmospheric N.
Mining activities are unsustainable non merely because they exploit non-renewable resources, but besides because they leave behind them devastation of the environment and society, which is really frequently irreversible. Because of its impacts, excavation is one of those activities that need to be purely controlled at all phases, from prospection and development to transit, processing and ingestion. After abandoned of mines, there is no proper closing of mines ; waste mopess will be at that place, no rehabilitation of the country, no compensation for the labor. There will be ever inquiry of that whether land will be given back to the landowner or non. It has been suggested that after closing of mine lands should be given to the landowners, after proper rehabilitation of land. Then they can get down to gain his support from the cultivating their ain land. Environmental quality must be sustained in countries affected by surface excavation. This requires planing and developing environmentally sensitive schemes for extraction and land renewal. It demands a more strict control of environmental impact appraisal and more attending to guaranting productive and sustainable land Restoration.
Mine rejected granite waste rock stuffs should be distributed to the local people who are inhabitant the satellite small town and besides originate for the industry of brick in house intents and roads. Filter masks should be provided to the workers and workss crushers and mine countries.