In this thesis written about Communicative Language Teaching, I particularly focused on Communicative Language Teaching-activities. First of all you will acquire introduced with the beginning of CLT and its features, because it is of import to cognize the beginning of CLT: When did get down? How it is formed the CLT that we are utilizing presents? What feature does it hold? Why it is utile for learning foreign linguistic communication? In the pages that follow, it will be argued of three sorts of practise which I consider fundamentally singular: Mechanical practise, Meaningful practise, Communicative practise. Classroom activities in CLT which are: Accuracy activities and Fluency activities, are mentioned in this paper as of import point that CLT has, besides I have done an observation in primary school to see which activity is being implemented in primary schools, because it is really of import to see how good our educational system is traveling and to fix myself as a hereafter instructor to choose which activities are more “ comfy ” for students. Following subdivision of this paper it has an amplification of CLT-Activities ; there you will see their execution and one illustration for each of them. I have done a questionnaire for students contained by 10 inquiries related to CLT-Activities, and after it I have explained the consequences of each inquiry of questionnaire. At the terminal you will see an overall decision of this paper, what I have understood based on my research, observations, theoretical portion of Communicative Language Teaching.
I Communicative Language Teaching
What is CLT?
In the late old ages, there has been an increasing involvement in larning “ English ” as a foreign linguistic communication, which fundamentally considered one of the most of import linguistic communications in all over the universe. Peoples need “ English ” for their occupations, calling, life, going, surveies, etc. The job was and in some states is still sing job in how to larn and how to learn a foreign linguistic communication ( including regulations of grammar, pronunciation, accomplishments, communicating ) . Fifty old ages ago “ Grammar ” was a singular point in learning a foreign linguistic communication, the system ‘s focal point was in learning a foreign linguistic communication based merely in grammar ( regulations, sentence formation, definitions ) which was called “ Traditional Approach ” . Fortunately activities started to be in procedure of altering with other activities and shortly traditional attack went out of manner. What made this attack to acquire out of the system was a new attack called “ Communicative Language Teaching ” or CLT. “ With CLT began a motion off from traditional lesson formats where the focal point was on command of different points of grammar and practise through controlled activities such as memorisation of duologues and drills, towards the usage of brace work activities, function dramas, group works activities and undertaking work ” ( Richards ) ( n.d ) . Based on this commendation and what is by and large accepted about CLT, I can state that CLT is a new attack, utile excessively, and it focuses on demands of instructors: How to learn a foreign linguistic communication? And besides in pupils: How to larn a foreign linguistic communication?
1.2 The Beginning of CLT and its features.
Harmonizing to Richards ( n.d ) CLT created a great trade of enthusiasm and exhilaration when, foremost appeared as a new attack to linguistic communication instruction in the 1970s and 1980s. So it is apprehensible that CLT has changed a batch of things in the field of linguistic communication instruction. As I mentioned before the “ Traditional Approach ” was a set of grammar regulations, therefore it had a chief end which is called “ Grammar Competence ” . Grammar Competence is full filled with regulation ‘s grammar, making sentences based on grammar, pass oning with regulations, whereby the feeling of natural linguistic communication was absent. As a consequence professors of linguistic communication thought that there can something more than “ Grammar Competence ” , and at that place as a chief end of Communicative Language Teaching is “ Communicative Competence ” . “ Communicative Competence ” which is at the bosom of our apprehension of CLT plays a really of import function in map of CLT. CLT needs Communicative Competence in order to be utile and can non work without it.
a-?Why Communicative Competence is so of import for CLT
-Communicative Competence is a comparative non absolute, and it depends from the cooperation of participants, their engagement, and so on.
There are four facets of Communicative Competence:
Even that learning “ Grammar ” is sing “ tiring ” from pupils, we can non avoid it, and grammar is chief thing of address, communicating, formal or informal written. However for me as a hereafter instructor, I should happen ways how to learn grammar without making emphasis on pupils, or making a deadening category.
The 2nd facet of the Communicative Competence is “ Discourse ” . In this facet can come in the intersentential ( it means: electronic mail, conversations, communicating ) .
-Social cultural elements.
The 3rd aspect Communicative Competence is Social Cultural Elements. In this facet is really attractive one this one includes interaction, context and pupils in the schoolroom. Rehearsing societal cultural elements than conveying in cultural things, and holding pupils rehearsing it, it means they have ability to pass on on natural context.
Strategic Competence goes beyond the schoolroom direction, by utilizing schemes and larning by errors pupils can pass on easy, can larn different ways of looks.
Besides Accuracy and Fluency activities play really of import function in Communicative Competence ; their balance is the true theoretical account of Communicative Competence.
Communicative Learning Teaching uses these four constituents of Communicative Competence in order to work successfully in procedure of learning and in larning. Communicative Language Teaching involves different sorts of schoolroom activities that gives pupils chance to see natural linguistic communication and existent communicating that promotes larning.
As we saw in the chapter I CLT is to full fill demands of instructors and pupils in procedure of instruction and larning a foreign linguistic communication. Through CLT we learn in natural manner a foreign linguistic communication. This can be realized through activities that CLT has.
CLT – Activities are really helpful in EFL categories, they manages to make ” a comfy ” atmosphere in schoolroom, they can raise the motive of pupils, through them instructors can happen many easy ways to learn a foreign linguistic communication, even if they have in program to learn grammar or something that seems a spot complicated.
a-?I privation to foreground two of import schoolroom activities of CLT:
Harmonizing to Richards ( n.d ) one of the ends that CLT is to develop eloquence in linguistic communication usage. Eloquence is fundamentally formed by schoolroom activities in which pupils use communicating schemes, they learn by making or rehearsing things or by happening failing point and works on them in order to extinguish. On other manus we have “ Accuracy ” that is distinguishable from “ Fluency ” . Harmonizing to Richards ( n.d ) truth focuses on the formation of right illustrations of linguistic communication, it does non necessitate meaningful communicating and the pick of linguistic communication is controlled. So seeing the features between of Fluency and Accuracy I can state that in eloquence activities pupils feel freer in utilizing a foreign linguistic communication, because the procedure of eloquence it gives chance to all pupils to pass on in foreign linguistic communication, pupils learn by rehearsing things, they can rectify themselves while pass oning. Whereas in Accuracy pupils are under the control of instructor, here the regulations of schemes are rigorous than in Fluency, and this may do a great emphasis on pupils, so instructors should take care how they use such activities. Neither Fluency nor Accuracy is less or more of import than the other, they should be treated in the same manner. They are equal constituents in schoolroom. For illustration if a instructor uses eloquence activities, and finds some grammatical errors on pupils than can utilize truth activities to work on those errors. Likewise can go on the opposite first to utilize truth activities than those regulations of grammar ( words formation, tenses, inactive voice, etc ) to use in eloquence activities to see if pupils have understood it. So none truth or eloquence can work without each other, they are linked together, and can non be separated. To map in the right manner both truth and eloquence I have noticed some stairss that should be taken into the history before we want to recognize these sort of activities.
a-?The function of instructor and pupils in schoolroom.
Teachers play an of import function in schoolroom. They should be prepared good to be in forepart of pupils. Teachers should be after things, lessons, and activities before they go to the category, or contrary they should be flexible in order to alter things if the program is non working. Teachers should be a facilitator in schoolroom, should be at that place whenever pupils have demands or have inquiries. Teachers should set about a batch of things in order to turn assurance and values on pupils. All these things can non be realized merely by instructors besides the engagement of pupils is really of import. Students should be ready to join forces, to come prepared in school ; they should make their responsibilities or homework given by instructor. They should be collaborative with other schoolmates, non to work merely by themselves, to be helpful with others and so on. If instructors wants to use eloquence or truth activities should believe before about other things like: Interrupting the routine/ Siting agreements
-None likes the everyday particularly pupils, they get bored if instructor focuses merely in grammar ( sentence formation, tenses, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc. ) , instructors should take care how to form things lessons, to split them in order to extinguish “ a modus operandi ” to do things more enthusiastic and merriment. On other manus pupils might acquire out of control and so the sense of acquisition will lose its intent.
a-?Seating agreements can be one of the chief elements if instructors want to use certain activities, if they want to alter someway the ambiance in category, and to interrupt the everyday. I want to stand for three sorts of siting agreements which I consider fundamentally and other siting agreements can flux from these three siting agreements.
-In the first figure we can see the normally seating agreements “ Seating in rows ” .
“ Seating in row ” is really normally agreement, so as you can see the figure there can be seat one pupils or two in one desk it depends on the figure of pupils in category. Students are in forepart with a instructor, the category is more rather with this seating agreement. This siting agreement can perfectly map if there is any activity for illustration working separately or if there are two pupils in one desk they can work in braces. The technique “ Think-Pair-Share ” can be utile in “ Seating in row ” . Teacher can give a mark for illustration “ What is a conditions today ” foremost they think separately and so they pair with each other and at the terminal they can portion their treatment with the category.
-In following figure is the other seating agreement and really normally used “ Group Work ”
With “ Group ” siting agreement a batch of CLT activities can be realized, if there are any game activities that need more than two pupils or any collaborative work “ group seating ” is the best 1. In this seating agreement the category should be divided in five or six group which contain by four or five pupils, it depends on the figure of pupils. Teacher should command all the clip pupils if they are working or holding any troubles because utilizing this sort of siting agreement in the category there can be a batch of noise and pupils might be out of the control. Group siting it gives chance to pupils to be synergistic to be collaborative to rectify each other, to make friendly relationship with other schoolmates, and so on.
In the 3rd figure we have the 3rd seating agreement called “ Horseshoe ” in add-on is my favorite seating agreement.
I consider the “ Horseshoe ” siting more favorable because none is in the Centre, all are treated equal and everyone can see each other without go forthing anyone else aside. Through “ Horseshoe ” there can be developed a batch of debated, treatments, everyone feel free to speak and like this eloquence activities can be realized. Sing to my experience in the primary or secondary school when we used this sort of siting the words started to flux itself, because the ambiance that is created it pushes you to pass on in foreign linguistic communication without detecting it.