When planing an aircraft, the aircraft design applied scientists usually take into consideration many factors. These include the maker ‘s and clients ‘ demands, physical and economic restraints and safety steps among many other factors. For certain aircraft, the design procedure is regulated by the state ‘s airworthiness governments. However the design procedure normally begins by placing the intended intent and usage of the aircraft. Sing this, the combatant jets, which are light in weight, are designed to execute high velocity tactics Commercial airliners on the other manus are chiefly designed to transport lading, warhead or riders. This demonstrates the degree to which the two aerodynamic designs may differ. While the two types of designs differ in legion ways, certain design characteristics are rather similar. My essay will compare and contrast the aerodynamic design characteristics of a typical visible radiation aircraft and a big commercial jet.
The P2006 T-Light Aircraft
Pascale and Nicolosi ( 2006, p.2-4 ) states that in the past decennary, Tecnam Aircraft Industries has been profoundly engaged in the development, design and fabrication of more than 10 light and extremist light 2-seat aircrafts characterized by high or low wing constellations. One such visible radiation aircraft is the P2006 VELT ( Very Light Twin ) , manufactured by the company in 2006. This is a 4-seat aircraft with two engines ( Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 are usually used for extremist light aircrafts such as this one ) . This visible radiation aircraft has really alone aerodynamic design characteristics to guarantee its stableness and good control. One such characteristic of this aircraft is its low propellor revolution velocity every bit good as low engine retarding force. The combination of the two facets coupled with streamlined fuselage give the aircraft a good aerodynamic efficiency.
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( Picture 1 above demoing P2006T in flight )
Engine Design and Position
The weight to power ratio of the P2006 VELT engine is favorable harmonizing to Pascale and Nicolosi ( 2006, p.4 ) . This is due to the fact that the weight of the engine is lower than that of Lycoming Engines in comparing. In add-on, Pascale and Nicolosi note that the engine frontlet is lower to let wing-mounted streamlined nacelle, thereby cut downing retarding force punishment ( beckon retarding force ) originating from the twin engines. This besides ensures that the stableness is maintained during take-off and landing. The lower revolution velocity provides higher propellor push at low flight velocity, which improves the stableness of the aircraft during take-off and the ascent public presentation.
The wing of the P2006 VELT aircraft is designed taking into consideration the demand to hold good flight public presentation and low structural weight harmonizing to Pascale and Nicolosi ( 2006, p.4-8 ) . The flying span of the aircraft is set at a value of 11.2 meters to let for easy control and stableness. The interior portion of this aircraft ‘s wing is rectangular to simplify flap contraction. The wings of this aircraft are besides made of aluminium stuff to enable the aircraft to be every bit light as possible.
Fuselage, Nacelle and Tail Design
The fuselage of this aircraft is designed so as to hold low parasite retarding force. Its form is characterized by a favorable low value of fuselage wetted country over fuselage volume. The aircraft ‘s nacelle is really little and good streamlined due to the compact engine design and size. The aircraft is besides fitted with an all manoeuvre stabilizer-elevator ( aircraft control surface ) to increase the aircraft ‘s longitudinal control ( higher tail efficiency ) and for stick-free stableness. The aircraft besides has a perpendicular tail designed for lower limit control velocity ( VMC ) in One Engine Inoperative ( OEI ) conditions. Pascale and Nicolosi ( 2006 ) argue that a somewhat higher value of minimal control velocity with regard to all procrastinate velocity had been chosen for the aircraft to vouch good and safe takeoff features.
The weight of an aircraft is a cardinal constituent that needs much attending during the design procedure harmonizing to Nicolosi and Pascale ( 2003 ) . For the P2006, the organic structure of the aircraft is made of aluminium metal. The aluminium metal is used to do the organic structure of this aircraft because it is really light in weight for easy control and operation.
Boeing 777-commercial aircraft
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( Picture 2 above demoing The Boeing 777 in flight )
The Boeing 777 is one of the most famously designed commercial aircraft used for transporting riders and lading. The aircraft has particular aerodynamic design characteristics to enable it to raise all the weight without any control or stableness jobs intending that its design incorporates the latest engineering.
The engine of the Boeing 777 is really big and heavy and it is mounted under the wing. Its machine is powered by a Rolls-Royce Trent 800 engine which weighs around 8.2 metric tons after the installing. Cupsty ( 2003, p. 7 ) notes that since most lifts are generated by wings, hanging the engine under the wings where they can easy be carried is a baronial thought. The ground for seting the engine below the wing is to cut down the wing root flexing minute thereby doing it possible to cut down the indispensable strength and weight of the aircraft. This helps construct stableness and makes the aircraft easy to command.
Sing the figure of riders a Boeing 777 can transport, it measures about 246 foots with a flying span of 222 foot at a tallness of about 65 foot. The aircraft besides has a sum of 24 wheels out of which 24 are used as landing cogwheel. It is besides known that the fuselage of the aircraft is designed in such a mode that it helps to cut down fuselage over fuselage volume. The Boeing 777 besides has a streamlined nacelle. The tail is vertically designed for lower limit control velocity. Besides the aircraft is fitted with stabilizer-elevators to increase its longitudinal control.
Differences in Design between the Boeing 777 and the P2006
It is evident that the commercial aircrafts differ somewhat from the light aircrafts in footings of aerodynamic characteristics. This is chiefly due to the different intents for which they are designed. For illustration, it is seen that the lighter aircrafts have lighter engines which are non placed below the wings as this is the instance with the commercial aircrafts as seen with the Boeing 777 ( Fielding 1999, p.17-26 ) . For the Boeing 777, the wing engine which is besides big and heavy is positioned below the wing to enable the aircraft to raise the heavy weight without any control or stableness jobs.
It is besides clear that the Boeing 777 is much larger and longer compared to the P2006. It is besides known that since Boeing is meant to transport many more riders than the P2006, its base country has to be broad to increase the stableness. In add-on, commercial aircrafts have more wheels than the lighter aircrafts. This is meant to assist keep stableness and better the landing cogwheel because of the weight harmonizing to Kundu ( 2010, p47-53 ) . Unlike the lighter aircrafts like the P2006, commercial aircrafts have a comparatively big fuselage to enable them have low parasite retarding force. The nacelle of larger aircrafts like Boeing is besides comparatively larger and less streamlined compared to those of lighter aircrafts.
Design Similarities between the Boeing 777 and the P2006
Many similarities can be seen with the two classs of aircrafts, one such being the weight features. It is evident that in both the aircrafts, the organic structure is made of aluminium metal to do the aircrafts lighter. This characteristic makes the aircrafts easy to wing and command. Furthermore, in both the aircrafts, the wing spans are all low, placed at a figure of approximately 11.2 m and once more are both made of aluminium metal. In both instances, the wings are rectangular to simplify flap contraction harmonizing to Kundu ( 2010, p47-53 ) . On the other manus, the wings of the commercial aircrafts like the Boeing 777 are long, about 222 foots to increase the aircraft ‘s stableness when in flight and when altering way. It is besides clear that both aircrafts are fitted with stabilizer-elevators to increase longitudinal control. Both aircrafts besides have perpendicular dress suits designed for lower limit control velocity. This enables the aircraft to hold safe take-off features. The lone difference is that the Boeing 777 has a larger and longer tail due to the weight it lifts and controls.
It is now good known that aircrafts are designed taking into consideration the intents for which they are intended. My essay has brought out these elements with respect to the aerodynamic design characteristics of the two aircrafts that have been discussed in brief. Lighter aircrafts, for illustration, have lighter, less powerful engines compared to commercial aircrafts. In add-on, the places of these engines besides differ because of the weight that they are supposed to raise. Differences have besides been seen with the wing-size and length, nacelle, tail and fuselage. Similarities besides exist chiefly in stabilizer-elevators, flying spans and weight features.