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# Efficient Designs Of SLOPE Penalty Sequences In Finite Dimension

*Proceedings of The 24th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics*, PMLR 130:3277-3285, 2021.

#### Abstract

In linear regression, SLOPE is a new convex analysis method that generalizes the Lasso via the sorted $\ell_1$ penalty: larger fitted coefficients are penalized more heavily. This magnitude-dependent regularization requires an input of penalty sequence $\blam$, instead of a scalar penalty as in the Lasso case, thus making the design extremely expensive in computation. In this paper, we propose two efficient algorithms to design the possibly high-dimensional SLOPE penalty, in order to minimize the mean squared error. For Gaussian data matrices, we propose a first order Projected Gradient Descent (PGD) under the Approximate Message Passing regime. For general data matrices, we present a zero-th order Coordinate Descent (CD) to design a sub-class of SLOPE, referred to as the $k$-level SLOPE. Our CD allows a useful trade-off between the accuracy and the computation speed. We demonstrate the performance of SLOPE with our designs via extensive experiments on synthetic data and real-world datasets.