This undertaking covers the design and analysis of a Diesel and gasoline engine powered auto utilizing a backward type of vehicle simulation.In this undertaking 1.2l RITZ is used for gasolene and 1.2l for Diesel.This two standard engines are altered to acquire high public presentation and low fuel ingestion Three drive rhythms are used to execute these issues. are FTP-75, NEDC and US 06.
The diving rhythm is programmed in the QQS tool chest which is used under MAT lab package.The optimisation is done by altering the gear ratios. For each driving rhythm fuel ingestion and pitch ratio graph is plotted for the 1.2 liter engine for both diesel vehicle and gasoline version of vehicle, where the fuel ingestion is plotted by the three rhythms. For acquiring better fuel ingestion optimisation is done by altering the gear ratio for the same vehicle specification and the graphs are plotted for all the drive rhythms.
Then the new vehicle and the selected vehicle are compared with the three rhythms and harmonizing to which the fuel ingestion and public presentation is studied. In the last portion of the undertaking the intercrossed version of both Diesel and gasoline engine with in bend, a battery and a ace capacitance is developed and analysed on the footing of public presentation and fuel ingestion.
The design and public presentation of the auto depends on fuel ingestion, emanation, power and torsion. To acquire best possible Fuel ingestion, Power & A ; torque simulation is done. Simulation plays really of import function in vehicle public presentation. Any simulation relies on the handiness of accurate sub-models or good-quality trial informations from the constituents and on accurate portraiture of the physical and control linkages between the constituents.
Vehicle Simulation is besides helpful in cut downing the fuel ingestion of the vehicle and reduces emanation. Now a yearss there is rigorous norms of local emanation committee due to increase in air pollution, each vehicle fabricating company put their auto harmonizing to the current thrust rhythm. These bounds are calculated by the survey of the standard engine public presentation over a complete drive rhythm of a auto.
There are several standard drive rhythms which act as a benchmark for freshly developed or developing autos in their regional countries of beginning and public presentation. Assorted drive rhythms such as ECE-15, FTP75, NEDC and US06 trial rhythm etc
Drive rhythms have been developed by many state at present harmonizing to there several drive. The widely used rhythms were developed by United States, European community and Japan. FTP75 rhythm is used in United states the “ FTP-75 ” is a transeunt trial rhythm used for emanation enfranchisement testing of autos and light responsibility trucks.
The “ SC03 ” Supplemental Federal Test Procedure ( SFTP ) has been introduced to stand for the engine burden and emanations associated with the usage of air conditioning units in vehicles certified over the FTP-75 trial rhythm.
The “ US06 ” Supplemental Federal Test was developed to get the better of the defects with the FTP-75 trial rhythm in the representation of aggressive, high velocity and/or high acceleration driving behavior, rapid velocity fluctuations, and driving behavior following get down up.
In European states, the ECE+EUDC trial rhythm is performed on a human body ergometer. The rhythm is used for emanation enfranchisement of light responsibility vehicles in Europe. It is besides known as the MVEG-A rhythm.
In Japan the 10-15 manner rhythm is presently used for emanation enfranchisement and fuel economic system for light responsibility vehicles and the 13-mode rhythm for the testing of heavy responsibility engines.
1.2 New European Driving Cycle ( NEDC )
The NEDC is the based on the approved official fig of autos. These values are compared with one specific auto with the homologation values to guarantee the incontestable status of the vehicle.
The first portion of the graph represents urban status of drive, in which a vehicle is started in the forenoon and driven in stop-and-go haste hr clip traffic. The 2nd stage represents extra-urban driving with a max velocity of 120 kilometers per hours
Figure 1: New European Driving Cycle
THERE ARE TWO NEDC Test:
COLD TEST AND HOT Trial
Cold trial includes pollutants, CO2 emanation and fuel ingestion
Hot trial includes CO2 and fuel ingestion.
1.3 FTP -75 driving rhythm: The FTP-75 ( Federal Test Procedure ) has been used for emanation enfranchisement of light responsibility vehicles in the U.S. The full FTP-75 rhythm consists of the undermentioned sections:
cold start stage
hot start stage
The followers are basic parametric quantities of the rhythm:
Distance traveled: 11.04 stat mis ( 17.77 kilometer )
Average velocity: 21.2 miles per hour ( 34.1 kilometers per hour ) .
Figure 2. FTP-75 Cycle
1.4 American US-06 drive rhythm:
US06 driving rhythm was made due to defects of FTP75 trial rhythm, in the representation of aggressive, high velocity and/or high acceleration driving behavior, rapid velocity fluctuations, and driving behaviour R following get down up.
The rhythm represents an 8.01 stat mi ( 12.8 kilometer ) path with an mean velocity of 48.4 miles/h ( 77.9 kilometers per hour ) , maximal velocity 80.3 miles/h ( 129.2 kilometers per hour ) , and a continuance of 596 seconds.
Figure 3. SFTP US06 Cycle
2. QUASI STATIC SIMULATION TOOLBOX
Quasi inactive simulation [ QSS ] tool chest is used to cipher the fuel ingestion of the power train system. QSS tool chest allows the fast ingestion appraisal for most of the power train system.
Fig 4 QSS tool chest driving rhythm plan
In this QSS toolbox the plan is designed as driving rhythm, vehicle, manual cogwheel, burning engine armored combat vehicle, there is show in which the deliberate value of fuel ingestion is displayed. Each simulink have its computation where we have to change for it harmonizing to our vehicle specification. Three rhythms US06, FTP75 and NEDC severally are loaded in this QSS tool chest in which the where we can choose the drive rhythm harmonizing to the system.
2.1SELECTION OF Car:
I have selected the 1.2L SKODA FABIA KOMBI for gasoline engine and VW POLO 1.2 DIESEL engine for simulation
Skoda Fabia Kombi 1.2l gasoline
Fuel armored combat vehicle
VW POLO 1.2 DIESEL
Fuel armored combat vehicle
GEAR RATIO FOR PETROL AND DIESEL ENGINE
Gear ratio Petrol
Gear ratio Diesel
3. Simulation of NEDC FOR PETROL ENGINE
The simulation of NEDC driving rhythm is done for both PETROL and diesel engine. In this matlab the QSS tool box is selected. From that toolbox rhythm NEDC rhythm is selected. Then the values are input to vehicle box, manual cogwheel box and burning engine.
FIG 5 QSS block diagram gasoline engine NEDC
After running the NEDC rhythm We got end product on show as 7.123 L/100 kilometer fuel ingestion. Input to each block was given based on the vehicle specifications selected for the standard auto. Optimization for the same engine was done to acquire high public presentation for that engine. The chief consequence of gear optimisation is to minimise the fuel ingestion of the engine.
3.1 OPTIMIZATION OF PETROL ENGINE WITH NEDC CYCLE:
FIG6 QSS block diagram gasoline engine optimized NEDC
Fig7 Gear Ratio Vs Iteration NEDC
As from the above fig see that there is tonss of fluctuation in value of gear ratio between 0-100 after that there is less fluctuation between 100-300 after that there is changeless values from 320 an above.
FIG8 FIG 8 TORQUE Vs ANGULAR SPEED OF NEDC
In this graph we can see as the torsion significantly increased at 90Nm and dips down at 85Nm so it once more addition.
3.2. Explanation of gear optimisation:
After finishing gear optimisation the fuel efficiency increased from 7.123 to 5.786 litre/100km.The public presentation of the auto is improved. The gear ratio changed:
Old gear ratio
New cogwheel ratio
4.Simulation of FTP 75
The simulation of FTP- 75 driving rhythm is done for both gasolene and Diesel engine. In this matlab the QSS tool box is selected. From that toolbox rhythm American FTP- 75 is selected. Then the vehicle specification are put in the tool chest of vehicle, manual cogwheel box and burning engine. After seting the auto cogwheel values we get 7.123 l/100km efficiency.
FIG 9 QSS block diagram gasoline engine FTP 65
4.1.OPTIMIZATION OF PETROL ENGINE WITH FTP 75 Cycle:
After optimisation of the rhythm it was found addition in fuel efficiency and lessening in fuel ingestion. Before the optimisation fuel ingestion was 5.69 litre/100km. As we can see there is important addition in efficiency.
Fig10 torsion V angular velocity of FTP75 PETROL
In this above graph there is addition in torsion from 10Nm to 60 Nm after that at 80Nm the value of torsion first addition and so lessening.
FIG11.Gear ratio Vs Iteration for FTP-75 PETROL
The gear ratio additions with 0 to 50 loop which is 4,2.1, 1.4,1, 0.8 after that it bit by bit lessening and after 150 loops the cogwheel ratio is changeless.
The new gear ratios after the optimisation is
1st gear 2.5908,2nd gear 1.2429,3rd 1.0791,4th 1.10125,5th 1.0124.
5.Simulation of NEDC ON DIESEL ENGINE
The simulation of NEDC driving rhythm is done for Diesel engine. In this matlab the QSS tool box is selected. From that toolbox rhythm NEDC rhythm is selected. Then the values are input to vehicle box, manual cogwheel box and burning engine
After running the NEDC rhythm We get end product on show 6.315 liter /100km fuel ingestion
5.1 OPTIMIZATION OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH NEDC CYCLE:
After optimisation of the rhythm, I found addition in fuel efficiency and lessening in fuel consumption.Before the optimisation fuel ingestion was 4.913lits/100km, As we can see there is important addition in efficiency from 6.315 litre/100KM to 4.913litre/100km.
Degree centigrades: UsersDHRUVDesktopMy question
Fig12 Torque V angular velocity of NEDC DIESEL
As from the above fig the value of torque lessenings from 19Nm to 79Nm, after that it the torsion rapidely addition at 79Nm.
AFTER Gear Optimization NEW GEAR RATIOS ARE:
1ST GEAR 2.0556
2ND GEAR 0.9800
Degree centigrades: UsersDHRUVDesktopMy question
FIG13 Gear ratio Vs Iteration for NEDC DISEL
Tendency in graph shows that all the gear ratio are decreased during the first 40 loops than it somewhat increases for 25 loop and so it is changeless for remainder of the period.
Similarly Optimization of Diesel engine is done by utilizing FTP-75 rhythm.
We get following consequences.
Fuel ingestion before optimization 7.135lits /100km
Fuel ingestion after optimisation 5.539lits /100km
6. US 06 Cycle
Hydrogen: GM engine testingMy questionus06lck gasoline us-06.jpg
FIG 14 QSS block diagram gasoline engine US 06
For utilizing US 06 rhythm continuously variable transmittal ( CVT ) is used. Continuously variable transmittal ( CVT ) is a transmittal which can alter steplessly through an infinite figure of effectual gear ratios between upper limit and minimal values. This contrasts with other mechanical transmittals that offer a fixed figure of gear ratios. The flexibleness of a CVT allows the drive shaft to keep a changeless angular speed over a scope of end product speeds. This can supply better fuel efficiency than other transmittals by enabling the engine to run at its most efficient revolutions per minute ( RPM ) for a scope of vehicle velocities
Hydrogen: GM engine testingMy questionus06fuel comsumption.jpg
Fig15 fuel ingestion
From the simulation consequences we found the fuel ingestion value is 5.577lits/100Km.the above graph shows the overall fuel ingestion over the rhythm.The initial extremum value is ignored because it represents the fuel ingestion during the cold start of the vehicle. The value of the fuel ingestion gets back to the normalised value after a few seconds of the operation of the vehicle. So, for this ground we take the average value of the fuel ingestion.
Hydrogen: GM engine testingMy questionus06velocity.jpg
Fig16 speed Vs clip
The speed graph is besides plotted utilizing a range. The speed graph above when compared to the standard US-06 drive rhythm, shows similarities. Since, the consequences obtained from the simulation assures that the value of the fuel ingestion complies with the existent clip fuel ingestion values.
A intercrossed vehicle is one that uses more than one type of propulsion.A Today ‘s intercrossed vehicle incorporates the usage of both crude oil based engine and an electric motor.
Series-hybrid system: In a series-hybrid system, the burning engine drives an electric generator alternatively of straight driving the wheels. The generator provides power for the driving electric motors.
In series transmittal batteries are most normally used but these yearss super capacitances are replacing batteries because ace capacitances have many advantages over conventional auto batteries like they have Long life improved safety, environmental friendly, high end product power, low cost Simple charge methods.
Ace capacitances are still non widely used in topographic point of battreries because of following drawbacks
sum of energy stored per unit weight is well lower, electromotive force varies with the energy stored High self-discharge
In intercrossed vehicle simulation, a series loanblend vehicle is selected as per required.
FIG 17 SERIES HYBRID
The series intercrossed vehicle rhythm is modelled by utilizing QSS tool box by utilizing both ; a battery and a ace capacitance one by one and simulation is done for both instances.
Hydrogen: GM engine testingMy question
FIGURE 18.QSS BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HYBRID CAR Exploitation BATTERY
The intercrossed version of the Diesel auto as shown above and the consequences where obtained.Fuel efficiency of Diesel auto after optimisation was 5.539lits/100km ( NEDC ) .The fuel efficiency of intercrossed auto came to be 2.363lits/100km.The consequences shows there is important addition in fuel efficiency of intercrossed auto than Diesel auto.
By the simulation of the three driving rhythm done on the gasoline and the Diesel engine on the selected vehicle, it is shown that the Diesel has a better fuel ingestion than the gasoline engine. The US 06 rhythms show that CVT is suited for the heavy laden vehicle for both the engines, which is done at matlab. The new assumed gasoline engine vehicle is besides proved that it is every bit better to the Diesel engine of the selected vehicle. The optimized gear ratios choice proved to be more dependable and consequences from the existent universe. But the disadvantage of the new vehicle will be reduced in the acceleration power. Even though the acceleration power is reduced the fuel ingestion is high which consequences in the low emanation. In the intercrossed vehicle battery is more efficient and fuel ingestion than the ace capacitance.
1.http: //ddl.me.cmu.edu/ddwiki/index.php/Vehicle_simulation_software # Simulator_Categories
3.G. Cole, “ Simple electric vehicle simulation ( SIMPLEV ) v3.1, ” DOE Idaho National Eng. Lab.
4.W. W. Marr and W. J. Walsh, “ Life-cycle cost ratings of electric/hybrid vehicles, ” Energy Conversion Management, vol.33, no. 9
5.http: //www.carfolio.com/specifications/models/car/ ? car=221133, pp. 849-853, 1992. 6.http: //www.dieselnet.com/standards/cycles/ftp75.html
7. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.dieselnet.com/standards/cycles/ftp_us06.html
9.http: //www.ecardlr.com/Maruti_Suzuki_Swift_VDI_Det-522.aspx ) 10.http: //www.ecardlr.com/Maruti_Suzuki_Swift_VXI_Det-269.aspx
12.http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_electric_vehicle 13.http: //www.mathworks.com/products/optimization/