Development of urban lands with assorted land usage consequences in creative activity of different signifiers of the metropolis, and this physical development cause traffic jobs. High traffic volume more than capacity of urban systems, consequences in environmental jobs, particularly air and sound pollutions.
Air pollution due to traffic is one of the chief concerns of urban contrivers and environmental decision makers in developing states for decennaries, because air pollution straight affects citizens ‘ wellness. This issue, in developed states, has been solved through right planning on land usage and transit, and stress on environment protection.
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We will seek, in this research, to analyze the correlativity between land usage, traffic, and its consequence on urban environment, particularly on air quality. In other words, we will study the effects of land usage in physical motion due to traffic, and its consequence on air quality.
Land usage and transit are two sides of a coin ( … ) . On one manus, transit is most of import demand of metropolis development and, on the other manus, planned or unplanned development consequences in transit demands. Hence, there is a really high correlativity between transit and land usage.
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Many analytical and descriptive theoretical accounts have been developed to demo this correlativity, each one provides one facet of researches and explanatory elements in geometrical construction of metropolis ( … ) .
But correlativity between transit, land usage and environmental parametric quantities such as air pollution haven seldom examined. Although environmental jobs, presents, are one of the most of import jobs, particularly in cities, and these jobs should be solved.
Rural parts, in developing states, are urbanising rapidly, and metropoliss are altering into cities, which cause environmental jobs. Most common type of these jobs is related to air pollution in metropoliss. Air pollution could be consequence of industrial activities, transit and other elements in metropoliss, but harmonizing to JICA, more than 80 % of Tehran ‘s pollution is consequence of urban transit. Because of belonging of important portion of metropolis ( …… square meter equal to …… per centum of territory infinite ) to main roads and linkages in and around territory 2, most of air pollution is created by traveling vehicles in territories ( …… . ) .
Urban transit is affected by three elements: 1- route and street, 2- vehicles and 3- users ( citizens ) , so we should see there three elements to cut down or extinguish air pollution due to transit. These elements are shown in diagram figure ( … . ) .
First, we should see urban substructure, particularly route and street, to cut down air pollution due to transit. If our roads have high traffic capacity, vehicle could go through faster and air pollution will be reduced.
Although route broadening is restricted by land restrictions in metropoliss, otherwise the metropolis would alter into a elephantine parking topographic point ( this is what happened in Hemmat Highway in territory 2 and its image is represented in appendixes ) . Using the good stuffs for route constructing besides could cut down pollutions due to bantam dusts scattered in infinite.
Second, utilizing planning and transit disposal, and utilizing low pollutant vehicles would assist better air quality.
Today, universe is speaking about bi-fuel, battery and solar cars, which make lesser pollution. Another manner of air pollution reduction is besides to advance the usage of public transit systems, which make lesser pollution per rider, in comparing to personal vehicles. Besides developing the green lines in metropoliss for bikes and promote people to utilize them is another solution.
Third, modifying citizens and vehicle and route users travel form is another manner. These would be achieved by cut downing the demand to go by motor vehicles through development of electronic metropolis and utilizing cyberspace and intranet for everyday day-to-day works- nearest manner to go, development of public transit fleet and encouraging people to replace their personal vehicles with public transpiration services. Planing of lasting land usage could cut down air pollutions indirectly.
So we can state that there is a additive relation between transit quality and land usage in metropoliss. City air pollution is most of import job, particularly in large metropoliss of developing states. Beginning of this pollution is vehicles. Main metropolis air pollutants are presented in table below:
Table- metropolis air pollutants due to transit
Effectss of these pollutants on citizens life- metropolis construction- human wellness and … have been proved ( 1234 ) .
As mentioned above, chief beginning of metropolis air pollution is urban transit which is influenced by citizens travel form and land usage. Relationship between urban travel forms, specification of origin-destination and land usage will be achieved through mathematical analysis. Origin-destination distance will impact citizens travel pattern evidently. Long distance between residential and working countries, between beginning and finish so, will impact transit and energy use. Even citizens ‘ economic position and relationship between public conveyance and personal vehicle use will impact traffic volume in metropoliss.
Transportation system is needed because it eliminates distances by modifying relationship ability between assorted activities. Indeed, this stopping point relationship between land usage and transit makes transit equipments one of strongest exceptional geographical tools for contrivers, so they could use it for conductivity of urban development.
However, land usage and transit relation is complicated and we ca n’t do any cause and consequence relationship between them. For illustration, it ‘s obvious that alteration of transit substructure has clear affect on land usage activities. Population volume and distribution of residential countries or industrial supplantings, etc. alter the transit demand form. Therefore, it ‘s necessary to prior end in transit planning be the development of effectual balance between land usage activities and possible capacity of their relationship, to cut down air pollution and enhance environment quality.
Land usage form typically would place by territory choice and territory location and relationship between territories and forming assorted metropolis zones such as commercial-official- internal and external ( 1234 ) . ( )
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There is many-sided interaction between assorted elements. These elements include land use intensity- traffic restriction level- vehicles effectiveness- centralising level- urban form- cost of energy and orientation to assorted types of public transit. All of these elements define metropolis air quality and fuel ingestion degree.
Harmonizing to Newman and Knorty ( …….. ) there are assorted indexes for rating of correlativity between transit and land usage, including:
land usage strength index
orientation to non-automobile transit
traffic restriction degree
vehicles public presentation
centralising degree of urban signifier
public transit public presentation
This survey has been made harmonizing to these indexes.
As travel volume and its features are under affect of land usage strength and nature, it seems garnering basic information about land usage is first to make. Land usage graduated tables for residential countries, typically, do step by pure residential collection. While in working centres and purchasing countries it does step by rate of one individual to allow business infinite. Required informations could be provided by official beginnings and we could synchronise them by resort to be aftering applications regulations. These basic informations have provided by appraising in every internal traffic zone.
Peoples ‘s involvement in public and private transit, day-to-day urban motor traffic volume, chief street breadth, subdivisions, proper use of traffic signals and citizens ‘ attending to them are points that should be taken into history in land usage and urban transit systems ‘ study.
However, most common transit type is cars that occupy more than 20 % of streets in many states. And it shows that land usage for transit intents is the 2nd one after residential land usage.
Environmental jobs in metropoliss have been changed into complex state of affairs, all elements related to each other. Environmental emphasiss in metropoliss are consequence of day-to-day addition in metropolis population and need to more infinite and alterations in land usage for better services. Observation in territory 2 in Teheran shows that chief environmental emphasis is consequence of enhance in traffic volume, particularly in main roads. It brings air and sound pollution jobs. Other environmental jobs besides are challengeable in territory 2, but we will stress on air pollution in this thesis.
Although Tehran ‘s territory 2 is a developed one, but mentioned jobs, particularly traffic load and air pollution decrease the quality of urban environment. Main grounds of vehicles congestion, which is chief beginning of air pollution in territory 2, are as below:
fast and imbalanced development of territory
alterations in signifier of the metropolis and continual alterations in land usage
development of residential countries with high collection
economic development of metropolis, which resulted in sweetening in citizens ‘ afford
Insufficient and inappropriate transit system, which resulted in utilizing personal vehicles by citizens.
Rate of metropolis streets length to personal vehicles
Vehicle parking beside streets
Excessive addition of main roads in territory, which changed territory 2 into transition of other territories.
Insufficient disposal of traffic and transit.
Above grounds may assist in addition of air quality jobs and lessening of urban environmental quality.
It is long clip that traffic multitude is one of the chief jobs of Tehran. This multitude in territory 2 is more because of extent of transitions and main roads. This throng consequences in waste of many hours by citizens and 1000000s of litres fuel excessively. Traffic may ensue in lessening of people belongings and dissatisfaction. Traffic besides affects air quality and consequences in assorted commercial and hygienic hurts. Observations in territory 2 show that traffic volume additions as the metropolis develops. We need a strategic bar method and utilised conventional methods were non effectual yet.
Menaces and chances, and failings and strengths have been considered in strategic bar method. If, as mentioned antecedently, traffic is most of import component in air pollution, there are two methods for decrease of air pollution in metropoliss:
First, by control and lessening of cars volume, traffic, and air pollution hence, will be reduced. Optimal traffic disposal to supply roads capacity- traffic signals- substructure betterment and to supply public transit system could be utilized to command figure of cars. And urban environmental position will be improved by using clean fuel like Bi fuel natural gas or electronic fuel.
Second, a scheme related to urban planning and proper distribution of urban land usage and diminishing urban travels are indispensable to work out the job of urban air quality ruin, and demo the importance and necessity of these studies.
Most of import intents of this study are:
Description of current land usage features in Tehran territory 2, sing zones- development- collection and continuity.
Description of relationship between citizens ‘ physical motion and land usage program and citizens ‘ determination devising in vehicle choice.
Description of features of air pollution in Tehran territory 2, sing sources- type of vehicles exhaust- accommodation and affects on urban environment
Description of some features of land usage policy tools- transit and air quality in Tehran territory 2, which has direct consequence on doing seasonal programs ageless, and suggesting related steps which could better relationship between land usage and physical motion and consequence in better urban air quality.
First hypothesis in this survey is that there is relationship between air quality and land usage program through physical motion by motor vehicles. It is on the footing of fact that any traffic due to utilizing dodo fuel in cars consequences in emanation of pollutants and hence consequences in air pollution. If cars do non breathe air pollutant gases, like electric loanblend or solar cars, there will be no such relationships. But major urban transit in territory 2 is taking topographic point by personal and centrifugal vehicles now ( ……….. ) .
Second hypothesis is that air pollution in territory 2 is largely consequence of motor vehicles and likely it ‘s true, because there is no other pollutant beginning like air pollutant mills in this territory. We can do a clear relationship between traffic volume and figure of air pollutants by this hypothesis. Since air current rate and way, which makes emitted fumess uncondensed, is non considered in measurement of air quality in streets, this relationship will non be wholly realized. So may be emanation volume will non be reported right. Yet there is a deficiency of recorded informations about air quality mensurating which causes some deployment because it reduces the quality of mentioned relationship. Anyhow it ‘s expected that this survey provide basic method for more comprehensive survey about transit and environmental relationships in Tehran territory 2.
Emission of assorted gases depends on fuel type and car age. But it is non possible to find age of cars in gesture and therefore we will connivance it in traffic computation.
Third hypothesis is that if graduated table of car ‘s motor will be considered, any car utilizing dodo fuel, irrespective of age, emits fumes, which has similar consequence on environment.
This survey merely considers relationship between land usage and physical motion through personal cars or public transit systems. Indeed, discrepancies such as migrants- urban transits through public transit systems- personal car proprietors, occupations and intent of urban transit that control physical motion. These discrepancies have been considered in this survey, but direct relation between some of them has been neglected. Actually, affects caused by transit are non limited to air pollution, but include sound pollution and shiver, which have been neglected excessively, and we merely stress on air pollution in this survey.
Tehran, as capital of Iran, is located in natural bed between 3534 grade of north latitude and 51 to 5137 grade of east longitude. This bed is limited to northwest boundary line of Markazi desert in south, to Jajrood vale in E, and vales of Karaj in West. Sing high extent and population ( …… ) , Tehran has been divided into 22 urban territories with independent municipality to better disposal.
Tehran territory 2 is placed in 51’20 ‘ degree Es longitude and 35’45 degree north latitude. It ‘s placed in south skirt of Alborz Mountains. It ‘s limited to south skirt of Alborz Mountain in north, alluvial desert of Markazi in South, and Farahzad and Evin Darakeh watercourses in E and West. Its entire form is as a rectangular with 12 kilometres in north-south way and 4 kilometres in east-west way, including 5000 hectare infinite. South portion of it in Tehran desert has hot and dry clime, while north portion in Alborz Mountains skirt has more temperate clime. General incline is in north-south way changing form 30-40 grades in north portion to gentler incline of 5-10 grades in south portion. Alborz Mountains is in its North. Its most high topographic point is about 1800 metre higher than sea degree, with median incline of 30-50 grades. There are some little vales like Darakeh, Farahzad in Mountains skirt ( north of Tehran ) . There are many hills in centric portion, consequences of H2O eroding. Highest topographic point in these hills is about 1500 metre higher than sea degree. Medial incline in top of the hills are 20-30 grades and in skirt about 30-40 grades. These hills are differentiated from other topographic zones by their tallness, multiple vales and terrible inclines in skirts. Pardisan Park hills and North of Kooye Nasr hills are some of them. This territory ends in 1200 alliance in South. Tehran territory 2 is limited to Alborz Mountains in north, territories 1, 3, 6 in E, territories 9, 10, 11 in south and territory 5 in West. District is wholly in North of Tehran and Aborz mountain skirt and most of it is at least 1400 metre higher than sea degree.
Why territory 2 has selected for survey?
Because territory 2 had experimented intensive alterations in land usage in recent old ages. Most of Tehran ‘s main roads are placed in this territory and it ‘s a good pick because of its extent from centre to North of the metropolis. District 2 includes 10 % of population and infinite of Tehran.
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