India has been endowed with rich biodiversity, abundant sunlight and changing rainfall. Agribusiness has been the primary business for a huge bulk of people for a long clip. The changing clime and flora form has allowed husbandmans to turn different types of harvests at different clip of the twelvemonth. Before independence traditional method of agriculture was practiced in our state. Traditional method did non take to maximise production but was rather successful in run intoing the demands of people as the population was rather low at that clip. The traditional signifier was suited for ecosystem as it replenished the foods and was non harmful in the longer tally.
But after independency with rapid addition in population, nutrient security became a major issue as the traditional method was non bring forthing adequate nutrient grains to feed the population. The Bengal Famine in 1943 besides showed our exposure to natural catastrophes as about 4 million people died of famishment and malnutrition. There have been frequent studies of decease due to malnutrition and hungriness at that clip. India was besides constrained in importing nutrient grains. So India had to look inwards to better productiveness and with a small aid from American scientist Norman Borlaug ushered a new epoch of Green Revolution.
In the late 60 ‘s the authorities of India was under enormous force per unit area to better nutrient security. The production of nutrient grains needed to be increased in order to run into the of all time increasing demand from Indian population. It so decides to travel with Mexican Breeder Norman Borlaug ‘s midget, high output and high response assortments of wheat. For turning such a assortment certain conditions are required such as: –
1. Use of fertilisers
2. Use of pesticides
3. Massive investings in H2O storage and irrigation
4. Institutional support in signifier of recognition handiness & A ; minimal support monetary value
The initial response to this technological invention was really dramatic and increased agricultural production by springs and bounds. The production increased from 50 million dozenss in 1950 to 131 million dozenss in 1978. The output per acre besides increased 30 % during this period. The technological alteration was successful in presenting consequences. India became self sufficient in nutrient grain production in 1974 and besides started exporting nutrient grains subsequently. India had become a nutrient exporter from being a nutrient importer doing green revolution a extremely successful experiment.
Presently agricultural production has hit the tableland and is non expected to increase greatly. Furthermore, indiscriminate usage of fertilisers and pesticides are adversely impacting the quality of dirt and groundwater. Plagues are developing opposition to pesticides doing them more unsafe for harvests. Excessive irrigation has caused the job of addition in dirt alkalinity and H2O choke offing at many topographic points. Harmful chemicals like DDT and BHC have found manner into nutrient concatenation and are holding inauspicious impact on ecosystem. Large piece of lands of forest land have been converted to agricultural land jeopardizing the vegetation and zoology of the part. Critics of Green Revolution point out that it has benefitted chiefly big and medium husbandmans holding comparatively larger land retentions because they were able to put in irrigation, fertilisers and pesticides unlike the little husbandmans. Plus Green Revolution has been limited merely to topographic points like Punjab, Haryana and Western UP as they are good irrigated unlike other parts which are fundamentally dependent on monsoons. The alteration in clime form besides adversely affected the little husbandmans holding small entree to irrigation and wholly dependent on monsoon.
The high cost of farm inputs have besides have compelled husbandmans taking loan from money loaners and other non institutional loaners doing them vulnerable to go indebted in instance of harvest failure. A bumper harvest is non besides a warrant for good net incomes for the husbandman as there is a opportunity of down monetary value much to the disadvantage of the agriculturist.
Many experts in agricultural field have voiced their concern on the built-in disadvantages of go oning with chemical agribusiness and its long term sustainability. It is inevitable that if this signifier of agribusiness is continued for longer period, irreversible harm will be done to dirty, groundwater and ecosystem. There is a current demand for alternate agriculture pattern that will cover with all the disadvantages of modern agriculture. Organic/Natural agriculture has easy and steadily come up as a suited option.
The US Department of Agriculture defines natural agriculture as “ Organic agriculture is a
production system which avoids or mostly excludes the usage of synthetically compounded
fertilizers, pesticides, growing regulators and farm animal provender add-ons. To the upper limit
extent executable, organic farming systems rely on harvest rotary motions, harvest residues, carnal manures, leguminous plants, green manures, off- farm organic wastes and facets of biological plague control to keep dirt productiveness and tilth, to provide works foods and to command insects, weeds and other plagues ”
Masanobu Fukuoka, in his book, One-straw Revolution, indicates four basic rules of
( a ) No plowing
( B ) No chemical fertilisers
( degree Celsius ) No weeding and
( vitamin D ) No works protection
Natural agriculture is a system that has evolved as an option to modern agricultural patterns. The non-use of fertilisers and pesticides are aimed to conserve dirt and groundwater from taint. The pattern is aimed at bettering profitableness, natural resource base, nutrient quality, long term sustainability and protecting environment. Organic farming relies on natural resources for nutriment instead than chemical agents. Following are the advantages of natural agriculture over traditional techniques: –
1. Ecological Benefits: Non usage of pesticide and fertilisers helps in protecting environment from the harmful effects of these chemical agents. It is a proved fact that harmful chemicals like DDT accumulate in the nutrient rhythm and adversely impact the ecosystem. Plus uninterrupted use of chemical adversely affects the quality of dirt. Organic agriculture uses no such chemical therefore assisting protecting the environment. Organic agriculture besides replenishes the dirt and improves dirt texture.
2. Monetary Benefits: The husbandman practising organic agribusiness saves money on pesticides and fertilisers can be used in other productive resources. It has been observed that organic agriculture produces similar sum of outputs as modern agriculture, so there is an overall net income for a husbandman exchanging from modern to organic agriculture. Switch overing to organic agriculture will diminish the dependance on money loaners and finally assist better fiscal status of the husbandmans.
3. Social Benefits: Modern agribusiness requires heavy investings in machinery, landholdings, pesticides and fertilisers. The heavy investings act as a hindrance for smaller husbandmans in practising modern agribusiness. The benefits of green revolution besides have remained chiefly among big and medium husbandmans, profiting few little husbandmans. Unlike modern agriculture, organic agriculture do non necessitate big investings and any little husbandman, with a small counsel, can pattern organic agriculture. This in bend has helped many little and fringy husbandmans improve their fiscal status.
4. Health Benefits: Food grown in organic farms have the optimum nutritionary value. Plus such nutrient is free from any sort of harmful chemicals which may roll up in the nutrient concatenation. The consciousness about organic nutrient has increased manifold in the past decennary and such nutrient bring a premium of approximately 30 % over normal nutrient. Higher borders have really attracted corporate to come in this field and contribute.
5. Economic Benefits: Organic agriculture does non necessitate chemical fertilisers and pesticides. As the pattern of organic farming becomes more widespread, it will ensue in lesser ingestion of chemical fertilisers and pesticides. Government normally provide a big subsidy to fertilizer bring forthing companies in order to do them more low-cost. As fertiliser ingestion beads, demand will drop ensuing in decrease in monetary values. So the authorities would now be able to cut down subsidy and salvage a significant sum of money for other intents.
Organic Farming in India
India produces primary merchandises whereas processed nutrients are absent. Organic merchandises
grown in assorted agro-climatic zones are java, tea, spices, fruits, veggies and cereals
every bit good as honey and cotton. Most of the organic green goods is exported. Domestic market and consumer consciousness is low, but is turning. A monetary value premium of around 25 % is received over conventional nutrient points.
In June 2001, Government of India initiated National Program for Organic Production ( NPOP ) for advancing organic agriculture. Export of organic merchandises is brought under authorities ordinance in October 2001.
Organic Farming in Kerala
State authorities has been actively advancing organic agribusiness in recent times with Kerala State Resource based Perspective Plan 2020 AD. It strongly recommends the acceptance of sustainable pattern at the earliest bespeaking the regretful province of agribusiness in Kerala. “ Jaiva Kerala ” has besides been launched by Govt. of Kerala to advance production of organic nutrient. The CII and Kerala Tourism Industry are branding Kerala as “ Safe nutrient finish ”
Organic Farming in Wayanad
In Marrapanmoola small town, Wayanad about 454 little husbandmans holding mean landholding less than 2 hectares have organized to cultivate assortment of harvests like coconut, java, cardamon, Piper nigrum, veggies, cashew nut etc. They collected carnal wastes and collected them to biogas and muck. This enterprise has been extremely successful in harvesting rich benefits for husbandmans who have already fire their custodies in modern agriculture.
For assisting out husbandmans exchanging to organic agriculture from modern agriculture, a concerted society has been formed named Highland Farmer ‘s Cooperative Society. Around 500 hectares has been converted to “ Organic Farming Zone ” . The green goods is chiefly for export intents and fetches a healthy premium of 25 % over normal green goods.
The motion is now distributing to Wayanad territory, place to celebrated Kerala spices. Self aid group now make vermicompost, organic manure and pest control solution made by them.
The province authorities now has set up 300 developing plan to roll up organic merchandises. Scientists along with husbandmans and clients will be educated about the benefits of organic agriculture. Research Centre at Aralam in Cannanore and regional labs with dirt and bring forth residue analysis are besides proposed to be set up under the plan. Development of domestic market for organic nutrients through supermarket and gradual backdown of State support on chemical input is besides planned. Wayanad, Idukki and Palakkad has been declared as organic farming zone