The term PPGIS originated at two meetings of the National Center for Geographic Information and analysis ( NCGIA ) as attendants struggled to border the following coevals of GIS. PPGIS is meant to convey the academic patterns of GIS and function to the local degree in order to advance cognition production. The thought behind PPGIS is empowerment and inclusion of marginalized populations, who have small voice in the public sphere, through geographic engineering instruction and engagement. PPGIS uses and produces digital maps, satellite imagination, study maps, and many other spacial and ocular tools, to alter geographic engagement and consciousness on a local degree.
Different methods of citizen engagement are used to carry through different things. In the 1970s, there was an accent in some bureaus on accomplishing contact with the maximal possible figure of citizens in any planning procedure ; that method, which placed great accent on utilizing signup sheets at meeting after meeting, has been called “ the organic structure count method ” of citizen engagement. Today, most contrivers place greater accent on representation and meaningful citizen engagement and less on the figure of citizens take parting. Representative and meaningful have different notes, nevertheless. “ Representative ” citizen engagement suggests a procedure that includes citizens who represent a wide position of positions and values in the community – immature people and old, rich and hapless, retired and on the job, rural and urban, white neckband and bluish neckband, college alumnuss and high school dropouts.
There are several definitions of PPGIS, one of them which describe PPGIS as a procedure of societal building which means that it is a collaborative procedure between machine and people or community. Warren, S. 2004. The Utopian potency of GIS. Carthographica 39 ( 1 ) : 5- 16.
PPGIS can besides be defined as an interdisciplinary research, community development and environmental stewardship tool grounded in value and ethical models that promote societal justness, ecological sustainability, betterment of quality of life, redistributive justness, nurturing of societal civic society and etc. Doug Aberley and Renee Sieber. 2002. Developed at First Interational PPGIS Conference held by URISA at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, July 20-22, 2002. Acceso:3 de mayo del 2006. hypertext transfer protocol: //ppgis.iapad.org/ppgis.htm
PPGIS can besides be a multidisciplinary, integrates outside adept cognition with socially differentiated local cognition. In add-on, PPGIS ‘builds on high degrees of stakeholders ‘ engagement in the procedures of spacial acquisition, analysis, determination devising and action ‘ Integrate multiple worlds and diverse signifiers of information to further societal acquisition, back up two/multi-way communicating and broaden public engagement across socio-economic contexts, locations and sectors ‘ Rambaldi G. , Kwaku Kyem A. P. ; Mbile P. ; McCall M. and Weiner D. 2005. Participatory Spatial Information Management and Communication in Developing Countries. Paper presented at the Mapping for Change International Conference ( PGIS’05 ) , Nairobi, Kenya,7-10 September 2005.
History of urban planning in Singapore
Singapore is a little island-state prevarication at the top of the Malayan Peninsula, dwelling of the chief island of Singapore and some 60 islets. Although Singapore is featured as the smallest state in Southeast Asia with merely 699 sq kilometer of land and a 193 kilometer coastline, the city state is dumbly populated with a residential population of 4.839 1000000s.
Singapore was founded in 1819 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles who was seeking for a suited topographic point to set up a nautical base for the British. Raffles signed a pact on behalf of British East India Company with the nominal heads of the country that called for the exclusivity of trade and the British protection of the country during the same twelvemonth. After a few old ages when Raffles returned to Singapore, he realized that there is a demand to set up a formal program to steer its otherwise disorganized landscape enlargement and so he instructed his governor to make the planning. After Raffles returned to Singapore two old ages subsequently from London, he was non satisfied with how the Singapore had grown and therefore he formed a town commission to pull up a formal program for Singapore, the program became the first elaborate metropolis program for Singapore, this program was to put the basis of the metropolis ‘s street and zonary layout, the kernel of which continues to be in today Singapore. For illustration, the allotment of civic establishments on the north bank of the Singapore River and the creative activity of the chief commercial country in what was so known as “ Commercial Square ” on the south bank have today evolved into the civic territory and the CBD on either side of the river. The grid-like street forms continue to be, while the ethnically segregated residential zones, despite holding been mostly depopulated by now, have continued to be as cultural enclaves pulling the attending of tourers, such as in the Chinatown, Little India, and Kampong Glam territories ( 1 ) .
After eight old ages when there were no updates and no new programs drawn up by the British, Singapore shortly outgrew itself and the initial program shortly proved unequal plenty garrison he fast turning population and development in Singapore. When Raffles founded Singapore in twelvemonth 1819, the population was merely 150 and by twelvemonth 1911, it was 185,000. There were overcrowding particularly in concern territory countries. The route system, planned for travel by pes and Equus caballus carts, besides could non manage the exploding traffic, peculiarly when motorized vehicles came to Singapore in 1915 and the state of affairs got worst.
In 1927, the British authorities set up authorities organisation called the Singapore Improvement Trust ( SIT ) to turn to the lodging needs that Singaporean were confronting. The SIT was composed of professional designers and contractors to decide the bing big societal job, with the end of constructing low-cost public lodging for the lower income group of people in Singapore. During 1927, many people resided in overcrowded store houses and homesteader colonies, ensuing in widespread disease and deficiency of hygiene and sanitation. The STI was nevertheless disrupted during the 2nd universe war when Nipponese occupied Singapore from 1941 to 1945. However, SIT managed to construct merely 23,000 lodging units in 32 old ages, unable to happen an effectual solution to deficiency of lodging as the population grew faster than it built lodging units. The Housing and Development Board ( HDB ) was formed by the People ‘s Action Party who came into power in 1959 and replaced the SIT, the HDB managed to construct 110,000 lodging units within less than a 3rd of that clip. Within the 1970s, most of the population in Singapore had found adequate lodging. Most of the current urban planning policy is derived from the patterns of HDB. Flatss with 10 to15 storeys high were ab initio built. Over the old ages, level with 20 to 30 floors high were built and at present, 50 floors lodging composites are under building ( 2 ) .
The end of URA is to maximize usage of land expeditiously yet comfortably and to function as many people as possible for a peculiar map, such as lodging or commercial intents in high rise and high denseness edifices. Infrastructure, environmental preservation, adequate infinite for H2O catchment and land for military usage are all considerations for URA.
Land renewal has continued to be used extensively in urban planning, and Singapore has grown at least 100 square kilometers from its original size before 1819 when it was founded. The urban planning policy demands that most edifices being constructed should be high-rise, with exclusions for preservation attempts for heritage or nature. A pleasant side consequence is that many occupants have pleasant positions. Allocating primary maps in concentrated countries prevents land wastage. The “ lodging in a park ” construct will be adopted for next-generation lodging blocks with the incorporation of H2O characteristics, sky gardens, etc. Condominiums and HDB places will confront the transformed canals or drains, overlooking verdure and waterways. Together with the creative activity of regional Centres in these new built towns around MRT Stationss, the new town planning construct will make an environment within which people live, work and drama.
Since the People Action Party ( PAP ) authorities had been in charge, urban reclamation included in the portion of the national betterment policy that was desperately put in action. Before that, the 1958 maestro program had already been designed to work out the metropolis jobs. However, due to the deficiency of urban planning experts caused by the lack of professional staff, unfavorable judgment came from many urban practicians. The professional squad recommended by the United Nations so was asked by the PAP authorities to get by with the urban reclamation affairs and its renovation program in 1961. Based on the UN aid study, two pilot developments were initiated in the terminal of 1964 by the authorities. These renovations so led to the success of Singapore ‘s urban reclamation because the authorities could supply sufficient sum of public lodging and concern countries ( 3 ) .
In the constitution of urban reclamation program, some troubles were experienced by the PAP authorities. The obstructions came from the opposition of people who used to populate in the slums and homesteaders. It was reported by Singapore newspapers that those people were loath to be replaced. This became the major jobs of 1960s renovation strategies ( 4 ) . Low-cost land value besides became one of its grounds. Another job was that the authorities had to buy the private land owned by the center and upper society to do the land vacant and be used for renovation ( 5 ) .
Business and residential territories were purposed for the cardinal country by the UN chief undertaking ( SCP ) and sub undertaking. The combination of development public adjustment and substructure and private development was visualized in the cardinal country renovation program. During 1970 to 1995, four major actions were implemented in the cardinal country: public lodging and service installations such as shops and market places ; the same criterions of URA gross revenues programmes with the private developers in building the resettlement Centres and commercial edifice ; the saving of shop-house country such as Chinatown, Little India and Bussorah Street countries in URA 1988 maestro program for preservation ; and allowing the private sector to have the land, particularly in the Central Area, the Golden Shoe, and Orchard Road ( 6 ) .
History of Concept Plan
The first Concept Plan was formed in 1971. This envisaged the development of a ring of new high-density orbiter towns around the cardinal H2O catchment country, with each town separated by green infinites and a system of Parkss and unfastened infinites. Low- and medium-density private lodging would be built beside these towns and there would be commissariats for industrial estates. Tracing its formal constitution in 1958, the first Master Plan went through 10 subsequent old ages of significant alteration in several phases. Unconvinced by the “ colonial and conservative ” be aftering purposes of the 1958 Master Plan, the freshly elected self-determination led by the People ‘s Action Party sought a dramatically different way of development from the early sixtiess: all-out urbanization and industrialization coupled with a Central Business District around Raffles Place ( See Ministry of National Development 1970 ; Wong and Yap 2004 ) . With the aid of a United Nations squad, the Master Plan was replaced by the “ Singapore Concept Plan ” approved by the cabinet in 1971. Twenty old ages subsequently, the revised 1991 Concept Plan has farther mapped out the vision for Singapore ‘s long-run physical development into the 21stcentury. The Concept Plan besides proposed a Mass Rapid Transit ( MRT ) system to link the population centres with the metropolis and western portion of Singapore. The Concept Plan besides called for bing installations to be maximized. In add-on, it stressed the demand for a better life environment and to put aside significant countries for diversion.
Concept Plan 1991
By 1989, much of Singapore ‘s substructure as envisaged in the 1971 Concept Plan – new towns, freewaies, the MRT system and the reclamation of the Central Area – had already been put in topographic point. The Central Area Business District was besides about to the full developed.
In 1989, the URA merged with the Planning Department and Research & A ; Statistic Unit of the Ministry of National Development, and a new URA emerged. It became the national planning and preservation authorization, with greatly expanded resources to steer the physical development of Singapore into the twelvemonth 2000 and beyond.
Therefore, the challenge for urban planning in the 1990s was a more qualitative one as Singapore strove to be the first developed metropolis on the equatorial belt, with its ain individuality distinct from metropoliss in the West. In order to accomplish this, a major reappraisal of the 1971 Concept Plan was undertaken and completed in 1991. It stressed quality, individuality and assortment when planning for a population of 4 million.
Concept Plan 2001
The vision of The Concept Plan 2001 is to develop Singapore into a booming metropolis in the twenty-first century. It is based on a population scenario of 5.5 million and sets the vision for the following 40 to 50 old ages. The Concept Plan 2001 aims to supply more new places in established countries. This will assist to further community bonds and rejuvenate bing towns. For those who prefer to populate in a new country, one or two new towns will be developed in future. More places will be built in the metropolis, increasing the live-in population from the current 3 % to 7 % . This will construct up a critical mass of population in the Central Area and add more bombilation to the metropolis.
For diversion, there will be more accessible green infinites, featuring and cultural installations. The Concept Plan aims to about duplicate the sum of green infinite to 4,500 hour angle. Access to the Central Water Catchment will be enhanced for low-impact recreational utilizations, such as cycling and hike. The Concept Plan 2001 plans to maintain existing nature countries in their countrified province for every bit long as possible.
For concerns, the zoning system will be revised to let greater flexibleness through the creative activity of new Business zones which categorize industrial and concern activities harmonizing to their impact on the environment and a new ‘White’zone which will let most utilizations. The Concept Plan 2001 plans for a planetary fiscal hub by concentrating the bulk of fiscal and services sectors within the Central Area. The conveyance system will besides be enhanced, with the bing 93km of rail lines increased to about 500km in future.
A new focal point of the Concept Plan 2001 is individuality. More of our built heritage will be conserved to heighten the character of topographic points. Where possible, landmarks and natural characteristics will be integrated as portion of new towns and developments.
The Concept Plan 2011 ( CP2011 ) will give Singaporeans and others a expression into Singapore ‘s hereafter in footings of the economic development chances, good quality life environment, an inclusive society where the demands of the population are taken attention of and a sustainable Singapore that balances growing with responsible environmental direction.
Due to limited land in Singapore, the URA needs to be after carefully so that it can run into the assorted land usage needs in the limited infinite that Singapore has. As Singapore continues to turn and develop, the CP2011 will play a critical function in assisting Singapore to equilibrate the land usage needs to guarantee sustainable growing for the state over the long term. Singapore authorities demand to guarantee that Singapore continue to keep and even heighten the quality of their life environment.
Land-Use Planning Using GIS in Singapore
The population growing in Singapore, triggered by an inflow of aliens, quickly raced in front in early 2000, turning the estimation of four 1000000s people into world. Today, Singapore has a entire population of 5 million ( 2010 ) . With this growing tendency, in another 10 to 20 old ages ‘ clip, Singapore will hit population of 6.5 million. Singapore faces huge challenges in its land-use planning.
Given its little size, it ‘s of import to carefully be after for the economic growing and future development of the island state. That ‘s why Urban Redevelopment Authority ( URA ) , Singapore ‘s national land-use planning bureau, relies on GIS to happen new ways to minimise development restraints. The consequence of the URA ‘s GIS-based planning can be seen in two cardinal programs, the construct program and the maestro program, both of which provide a comprehensive, advanced, incorporate model for sustainable development.
ESRI ‘s ArcGIS Server and ArcGIS Desktop package was used to make the programs, while the ArcMap application inside ArcGIS Desktop was customized to suit the workflow demands of the URA. The new work flow system has enhanced productiveness through better informations integrating and more handiness than had been provided by the CAD system that URA abandoned in 2006. Since exchanging to a waiter GIS platform in that same twelvemonth, more URA employees can entree needed information without holding to pay for multiple CAD-based desktop licences. Meanwhile, GIS information is diffused through better entree to cardinal work flow tools, such as simple informations retrieval services or redacting applications.
URA takes advantage of an endeavor GIS called LandNet to obtain the geospatial informations it needs to make maps for planing the construct and maestro programs. Hosted by Singapore Land Authority, LandNet is a server GIS-based depository incorporating more than 100 beds of geospatial informations contributed by more than 14 public bureaus. Using the shared informations from LandNet and the functionality in ESRI ‘s ArcGIS package, the URA can make, edit, and publish construct and maestro program maps on the Web for employees and the general public to see. URA has 200 professionals working on the maestro program entirely, all of whom can entree informations at the same time.
The maestro program is a land-use program that guides Singapore ‘s development 10 to 15 old ages into the hereafter. It is reviewed every five old ages and translates the wide, long-run schemes of the construct program into elaborate programs to steer development. Like the construct program, the maestro program is produced collaboratively among many authorities bureaus in Singapore.
The 2008 maestro program is alone in that it took suggestions from Singapore ‘s citizens into consideration before it was finalized. Since the URA could easy print maps and programs on the Internet, the bureau invited the populace to give feedback on the unsmooth bill of exchange of the maestro program. From May through August 2008, more than 40,000 people visited the maestro program Web site to position and remark on the GIS maps of the maestro program.
Concept Plan 2011 Public Survey Result
URA carries out regular studies to mensurate the perceptual experience and satisfaction degrees with the life, working and leisure environment in Singapore, for illustration, in footings of the assortment of lodging options available, the handiness and proviso of indispensable installations ( such as peddler Centres, dry/wet markets, schools and polyclinics ) , and the scope of leisure activities available in Singapore. The aims of the URA Lifestyle Survey 2009 are to understand the life style demands and aspirations of Singapore citizens, lasting occupants ( PRs ) every bit good as aliens, Identify gaps in the current proviso of comfortss and installations, step perceptual experience and satisfaction degrees with the life, working and leisure environment in Singapore and understand the factors that contribute to a sense of belonging to Singapore as an endearing place. Through these studies, URA will be able to set up tendencies in the lifestyle aspirations of the population as Singapore continues to turn and develop into a cosmopolite, planetary metropolis. The findings from the latest study will supply utile inputs to the ongoing Concept Plan 2011 for Singapore.
Factors act uponing pick of residential location.
Based on the study consequences, the top 5 most of import facets of quality of life are public conveyance installations, nutrient and drinks constitutions, health care installations, green infinites, andeducational installations.
The top 5 installations used by the most figure of respondents are nutrient tribunals, supermarkets, shopping Centres / shopping promenades, HDB stores, and fiscal installations ( eg Bankss, ATM ) .
The 3 most important factors act uponing the pick of residential location are cost of lodging, propinquity to public conveyance installations, and propinquity to vicinity installations.
The top 3 factors act uponing the pick of lodging type are cost of lodging, proviso of comfortss and installations, and lodging types available in preferable residential location.
Analysis and Recommendations
Blending lodging with other land utilizations
Build high-rise lodging on top of another edifice that serves different intent ( s ) , e.g, constructing on top of a shopping promenade, community Centre or auto park in order to salvage more land.
Using land degrees of HDB flats
Provision stores, tuition Centres and child care Centres can be built on the land degree of blocks of flats. Certain out-of-door installations such as resort areas can besides be located on the land degrees. This allows more land to be set aside for lodging use.
Allocating land `saved ‘ from other utilizations to lodging
Look into land infinites, which antecedently were set aside for other intents, to be used for lodging if these intents can be fulfilled on another piece of land set aside for other purposes. For illustration, Parkss can be built with athleticss installations, therefore the piece of land which was ab initio set aside for these athleticss can be used for lodging intents alternatively.
Aspects that people wish to see more of in Singapore
The Lifestyle Survey shows that people want to see more diverse night-time offerings, events and festivals, health care installations, greater chance to be involved in make up one’s minding how the life environment is shaped, and a more vivacious street/public life In add-on, respondents to the online study besides felt that a greater assortment of athleticss installations and more humanistic disciplines and cultural locales and installations could be provided.
Analysis and Recommendations
Co-location of commune installations with civic/cultural establishments
Police Stationss, community Centres, place for the aged, child care Centres, libraries, museums, and drama/stage public presentation infinites could be selectively located within the same edifice. In this manner, it allows the installations to be easy accessed within the lodging estates. It is possible to construct higher denseness edifices to house these installations and community establishments, since the co-location construct is more likely to be introduced in new towns that are anticipating more developments such as Sengkang and Punggol. These country allow for even higher-density edifices to be built unlike in the Eastern portion of Singapore, where there is a ceiling set to the come-at-able tallness of edifices due to the location of Changi Airport in the locality.
Elderly ‘s life style demands
Elderly ‘s lodging penchants
Most of the aged respondents prefer to populate in regular lodging and age in topographic point within the community, instead than to remain in private retirement small towns or HDB studio flats. Most of the focal point group participants felt the same manner excessively due to their desire to turn old with their households and age in topographic point in a familiar environment. By making so, they hope to retain their sense of independency and go on to interact with people from all walks of life within the community.
Respondents to the online study besides showed a similar penchant for regular lodging for the aged. The Lifestyle Survey consequences show that the top 4 factors act uponing the aged ‘s pick of lodging are cost, propinquity to public conveyance installations, propinquity to vicinity installations, and equal proviso of wellness installations. This is supported by the feedback from the online study respondents who indicated that they did non mind to populate farther manner from the metropolis in their old age but preferable lodging with aged friendly design, near their households, conveyance nodes and comfortss.
The most important suggestion from the aged respondents is to supply elderly friendly installations and comfortss within walking distance from place. In the online study, respondents ranked aged friendly lodging, exercising countries, activity Centres, infinites for inter-generation interaction and barrier-free installations as the most of import installations for the aged. During the focal point group Sessionss conducted for the Lifestyle Survey, the participants besides highlighted the importance of run intoing the societal demands of the aged through, for illustration, organizing support groups among occupants and forming more societal activities for the aged.
Analysis and Recommendations
Schools could be located near studio flats, places for the aged, and public assistance places, to promote the young person to understand and care for the aged.
The added close propinquity can promote youth to see the aged after category. This could be accompanied with academic inducements for active engagement in the voluntary work.
Regenerating mature towns and estate
With a jutting population of 6.5 million in 2025, our bing residential landscape may no longer be vibrant and sparkling. This is particularly true for early lodging estates constructed during stage 2 and 3 of HDB ‘s public lodging development in the seventiess. As a consequence, more modern places will be included in familiar and established topographic points ( URA, maestro program 2008 )
Ultimately, these new places with younger occupants will assist regenerate and inspire these mature communities, while new services and installations will do the towns and estate even livelier and dynamic.
Apart organize presenting new abodes, there is besides a greening policy of the town Centres to resuscitate and excite the bit by bit ageing towns and estates.
For case, a greening programme custom-built for Yishun Town Centre with new community infinites, improved prosaic linkages, and an integrated mixed-use development with coach interchange at Yishun Central, promises to take a breath new life into the middle-aged estate. New park connexions will do it easier to acquire from nearby places to Lower Seletar Reservoir, while park around Yishun Pond will be enhanced for occupants ‘ enjoyment.
Green edifice characteristics
82.9 % of the Lifestyle Survey respondents wished that there were more high-rise verdure ( e.g. plantation owners, patio gardens, and roof gardens ) in their lodging development or office development. In the online study, about all the respondents indicated that they wish to see more lodging undertakings which incorporate green engineerings and most of them were besides willing to pay more for lodging with such characteristics. Most of the online respondents besides presently follow environmentally friendly patterns like recycling and energy economy steps.
The roofs of some low-density edifices could be used to construct Parkss.
The roofs of some four-storey HDB edifices could be used to construct Parkss or athletics installations such as tennis tribunals and swimming pools. These low-storey flats allow public to derive easy entree to these installations at the roof. Greenery located on roof-tops could function to chill the overall temperature of the edifice. Hence this could besides be used as an energy-saving construct. Furthermore, the verdure could besides assist to test and better the abrasiveness of our urban landscapes, thereby bettering the ocular quality and attraction of residential countries.
Preferred work location
Most of the respondents who are employed work in the Central part and the West part.
When asked where the respondents prefer to work, a important proportion would prefer to work close place or in their immediate vicinity. Fewer would prefer to work in the metropolis Centre, if they had a pick. The top 3 factors act uponing pick of work location are easiness of entree to workplace, propinquity to public conveyance installations, and propinquity to place. 63 % of the Lifestyle Survey respondents take some signifier of public conveyance ( coach, train or cab ) on their manner to work. A lower proportion ( 31 % ) takes private vehicles or bike to work.
Using MRT or LRT viaducts as park connections to open up more infinites to the populace.
This can make more verdure and park infinite for the populace to garner and loosen up. Furthermore, these infinites will be sheltered by the railroads. It is besides possible to present cycling as a manner of conveyance as these park connections can organize a additive way, associating one part to another, e.g. , East seashore park to Kallang and Marina Bay. This could besides function to advance a healthy life styles for the community, and perchance function as another scheme to cut down the denseness of vehicles on the route.
Factors that encourage public conveyance use
The 3 most important factors highlighted in the Lifestyle Survey that can promote public conveyance use are cheaper menus, and higher frequences for coach and MRT services. These factors were besides highlighted as of import during the focal point group Sessionss. Respondents to the online study besides suggested bettering the coverage and dependability of public conveyance web ( particularly for private estates ) , increasing the cost of auto use, easing cycling to public conveyance nodes, and holding staggered on the job hours ( to cut down top out hr herding ) to advance the usage of public conveyance.
Besides the greening of the town Centres, occupants in other parts of the part will be able to profit from HDB ‘s late revised upgrading strategies like the Home Improvement Programme and Neighbourhood Renewal Programme. These upgrading programme aid middle-aged estates to maintain up with life criterions in soon built new towns. This is an obvious illustration of upholding of physical quality and life conditions.
It is notable by 2020, one in five Singaporean occupants will be seniors aged 65 and older. Thus it is indispensable to pay peculiar attending to the demands of our aged occupants. Finally, the other arm of continued upgrading is to do the HDB life environment contributing and comfy, so that they can be encouraged to stay healthy, active and involved in their communities.
The upgrading bundle for senior citizens consists of several constituents: Raise Upgrading Program ( LUP ) , Barrier Free Accessibility ( BFA ) , and Universal Design ( UD ) . Last but non least, to guarantee our senior citizens maintain tantrum and healthy, we will be presenting more senior citizen fittingness Parks.
The most of import constituent is the LUP. It improves mobility for the aged and keeps them connected to the community. That is why the authorities has stepped up the LUP with the committedness to widen life entree to every floor of all eligible HDB blocks by 2014.
The authorities has besides committed to accomplish Barrie-Free Accessibility ( BFA ) in all HDB estates by 2011. To make this, HDB is working closely with other bureaus such as town councils, N Parks and LTA. The purpose is to enable our senior citizens to travel about with easiness within their blocks, and around their estate.
To do our new flats more user-friendly for the aged and the physically handicapped, HDB has adopted a new criterion of design called Universal Design ( UD ) . UD characteristics include wider corridors to ease easy wheelchair motion, step-less insides, and accessible and easy-to-use switches.
DATA AND METHODS
This is where you might give a brief debut to the specific nature of your intended research – what data you intend you use and what your overall methods and techniques will be
3.2: Datas Used
Discuss the information that you will be utilizing. Is it primary or secondary informations? Will you be roll uping the informations your ego ( from questionnaires for illustration ) or utilizing nose count informations from a authorities beginning? ) . What are the spacial and temporal features of the informations? Are at that place any known or awaited beginnings of mistake in the informations?
3.2.1: Spatial and temporal features
Discuss specific informations features within a sub-section
3.3: Methods and techniques
These may hold their ain subdivision of they are different plenty. Some literature mentions might be used here – cited suitably.
3.3.1: A specific method
Use subdivisions to discourse a specific subject or technique
You can complete with a brief drumhead and so a lede to the following chapter
Here you might briefly discourse the contents of the subdivisions which follow if you have different types of informations to depict. Remember to cross-index back to the methods chapter if necessary
4.2: & lt ; Results for a subject & gt ;
Datas should be shown in its synthesised signifier. Large tabular arraies of natural informations should be put in the appendix at the dorsum and so referenced consequently.
4.3: Discussion of consequences
The last subdivision here can usefully synthesize the organic structure of consequences presented. You should foreground the cardinal consequences and underscore their importance in relation to the overall thesis purpose.
You can complete with a brief drumhead and so a lede to the following chapter
This subdivision might be a utile point for reminding the reader what the originbal survey aim/research inquiry was.
From this point you may discourse the consequences in item and in peculiar, do cross mention to external equal reappraisal literature and statements in the context of the original survey purpose.
This is a comparatively short chapter. You should merely turn to the original research aim/research inquiry in the context of your findings and supply some concluding decisions – doing usage of appropriate literature mentions if necessary.
Any recommendations for farther survey and possibly a statement of what you might hold done otherwise ( in hindsight ) can be stated here.
This is where you can put stuff which is either excessively voluminous to infix in the relevant chapter or possibly is an illustration of a sample questionnaire used etc.
2 ) Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) in Urban Design: A Practical Position
Edward H. Flaherty MSc in GISc Online Dissertation, Geography Department, Birkbeck College,15 September 2001
3 ) Applicability Of Gis Implementation Perspectives To Public Sector In Singapore Theresa Wong 5 October 2004
5 ) Urban Redevelopment Authority. ( n.d. ) . Concept program 2001. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ura.gov.sg/conceptplan2001/index.html
6 ) Urban Redevelopment Authority. ( n.d. ) . Maestro program 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2009, from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ura.gov.sg/MP2008/
7 ) Wong, T.-C. , & A ; Yap, L.-H. A. ( c2004 ) . Four decennaries of transmutation: Land usage in Singapore, 1960-2000. Singapore: Eastern University Press.