Abstract The present study investigated the studying strategies in Differential Calculus of the students in relation to their competency. There were several assumptions in the past studies on how the studying strategies explain the competency of the students. The present research gathered the common studying strategies and formulated a checklist to be answered along with a competency test. The final grade and the test score of the students were merged to determine their rank relative to the other respondents. Using chi-squared with critical values between 5. 99 and 9. 1, the studying strategies of the upper and lower groups were assessed whether there is a significant difference and relationship to their competency in Differential calculus. Those studying strategies that have a significant relationship are grouped which is then concluded as the effective studying strategies in Differential Calculus. Keywords: Differential Calculus, studying strategies, competency, grades, mathematics, test scores Introduction Differential Calculus is a subfield of calculus which deals with the change of rates at which quantities change. It is learned in schools because of so many reasons.
Firstly, the mastery of this field is needed because it plays a major role in applications to physics and engineering, thus, it is a prerequisite to higher education in mathematics. Secondly, it also provides theoretical platforms on which applied methods are built on. Another justification for learning this field is that it provides analysis which has two distinct but interactive branches according to the types of functions that are studied: namely, real analysis, which focuses on functions whose domains consist of real numbers, and complex analysis, which deals with functions of a complex variable.
This seems like a small distinction, but it turns out to have enormous implications for the theory and results in two very different kinds of subjects. Both have important applications. (www. math. cornell. edu/Courses/lifeaftercalc. html#analysis) However, while it holds true that differential Calculus is important to forward higher education, it is unfortunate to observe fellow students find difficulty in learning Differential Calculus until to the point that their competency deteriorates.
Students have the propensity to forget lessons in Differential Calculus after it is taught. One factor that causes this inability to remember the lesson is the utilization of ineffective study habits. It is a common notion that when students in the school setting study hard, performance in academics would improve. Even poor students who have developed good study habits can perform well in school (On & Watkins, 1994). Study habits are “those activities necessary to organize and complete schoolwork tasks and to prepare for and take tests” (Robbins et al. 2002). It is recognized in the present study that students need a standard showing specific study habits and how they affect the students’ performance in Differential Calculus. Several validity and investigations of study habits has been conducted. Bray, Maxwell, and Schmek (1980) assessed the students’ attitudes in studying and used it to predict the grades of the students’ performance. They have also found the correlation between the test scores of the students and their strategies in studying.
However, there is a need to further establish the structure since there is a lack of follow-up studies on these measures. Moreover, the previous studies explained the contribution of the study habits generally to the overall field of education. The students’ performance, in their studies, do not account for specific contribution of the study habit. This present study will deal with the common study habits that are collected. Through this, the researchers will look into the relationship between each step/strategy in studying and their performance in Differential Calculus, e. . , attending to class daily, having a fixed schedule in studying, as to provide the students a standard of effective strategies in studying. What the researchers aim is to specifically determine the specific strategy in studying that contribute to the competency of a more specific subject which is Differential Calculus. Theoretical Framework How the independent variables in this research influence the dependent variable are on the bases of psychological and educational theories, principles, and concepts.
Studies say that learning is better achieved and mastered when the learner attends to it as soon as possible. Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of Proximity referring to the way in which he tends to form groups according to the way they are spaced, grouping the nearer ones together (Tria, et. Al. , 1998). When applied to learning, this refers to having a constant study habit to compliment the learning acquired in school. Moreover, it explains why it is easier to remember recent events and hence more easily joined with the interest of the present in a common Gestalt (tria, et. Al. , 1998).
In application to academic competency and performance, study habit pertaining to immediate and regular study periods and doing school requirements tend to result in a better performance than delayed and erratic study periods do. Experiential learning is primarily significant in its emphasis on personal involvement and personal acquisition of knowledge and skills through relevant experiences. C. R. Rogers differentiates between “cognitive (meaningless) and experiential (significant)” learning. The implication to academic performance is that students need to be continuously engaging in their studies as to retain and/or master the subject.
The study focuses what strategies in studying the upper group have to compare with the lower group as to find out what study habits are effective. Conceptual Framework Statement of the Problem The main purpose of this study is to determine the effective strategies in studying Differential Calculus of the BSEd Math III at Cebu Normal University of school year 2010-2011, as basis for predictor of good performance. This study will specifically lead to answer the following questions: 1. What are the learning strategies of the students who belong to the Upper class? . Is there a significant difference in the learning strategies between the upper class and the lower class? 3. Is there a significant relationship between the learning strategy and competency in Differential Calculus? Significance of the study This research would benefit and improve the following: The BSEd Mathematics students of Cebu Normal University (CNU) This study will help evaluate their competency on Differential Calculus which would enable them to enhance their skills especially in problem solving in the subject.
This will also provide studying strategies that will result to better performance and competency of the subject Calculus Instructors in Cebu Normal University This study will help them gain significant insights on the progress and mastery of the students in Differential Calculus. Future Researchers They may use this study as their guide in further research about how students boost their competency and performance in other major fields in mathematics including the factors that affect it. Review of Related Literature
There are several studies that points to the significant contribution of study habits on students’ performance. Marcus Crede and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students.
They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance.
In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown. Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other noncognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success.
Robbins et al. , (2006), they constructed the Student Readiness Inventory (SRI) which also measure some pattern of study habit behaviors (i. e. , academic discipline, emotional control, study skills). In their results, the study behavior patterns such as academic discipline, commitment to college, academic self-confidence, and general determination had the strongest relationships with the academic performance outcomes. The SRI factors had the largest contribution to grades (30. %) as compared to other factors (SES and race ethnicity). In another study by Robbins et al. (2004), he reported in a metanalysis that there are over 109 studies investigating the effect of study habits on students’ school-related outcome and the most common index is the students’ grade. The students’ grade reported in most studies is the Grade Point Average (GPA) when using a college sample. In their study, the relationship of study habits is positively related to grades but not as strong as its relationship with the SAT scores.
Other studies have also emphasized the importance of study habits contribution to student grades. Murray and Wren (2003) concluded that traditional academic skills like study habits (using SSH) accounted for a significant amount of variable in explaining students’ grades. Aluja and Blanch (2004) in their model found that study habits had a direct link on students’ grades. When study habits were added as a predictor of academic achievement (GPA) in their study, the explained variable (R2) increased with . 4 points as compared when other predictors were added.
The same results were found by Nonis and Hudson (2006) that when study behavior was added in the regression predicting grades, there was a significant increment in the explained variance (R2). A similar pattern was found by Svanum and Bigatti (2006) that when study behavior such as study effort was entered as a predictor of grades, it accounted for the largest contribution to grades (37% of grade variation) as compared to the contribution of outside activities (21%). Frank Pogue (2000) did a research project to determine why students fail.
What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today–students fail because they do not know how to study . The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work.
Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a new acquaintance.
For this way, that student will find concentration when he does study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so. ” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY Research Design The study is a quantitative research under correlation descriptive method since we are getting the different favorable strategies of each third year BSED Math in studying Differential Calculus and at the same time, we want to know the significant relationship of their chosen strategies to their competency in Differential Calculus. Research Environment The research was conducted at Cebu Normal University. It is a state university. It is located at Osmena Blvd. It is near Banko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
Its mission is to develop high performing educators that generate new knowledge and help build progressive and peaceful communities. Research Respondents The respondents of this research are third year BSEd Math, school year 2010-2011 who had taken up Differential Calculus. This study used purposive sampling method. The population of the students is 40. The population was divided into the upper class, middle class, and the lower class: 12 students belonging to the upper class, 16 students to the middle class, and 12 students to the lower class.
The students were given a researcher-made checklist and an attached competency test in Differential Calculus. The students who were absent during the day when the study was conducted were not counted as respondents. Therefore, this study also used the convenience method in selecting the respondents. Research Instrument The main instruments used in this study were the researcher-made checklist and competency test in Differential Calculus. The checklist was made up of 33 statements wherein the respondents would check whether the strategy in the statement suited their study habit.
The competency test was made up of 45 items comprising the significant topics in Differential Calculus. This involved the multiple choice and problem solving. Research Procedure In order to achieve the objectives, first, we gathered the different strategies in studying Differential Calculus and formulated a Test Items measuring their competencies in the said course. This became possible and valid, through the assistance of a Differential Calculus’ Teacher. After having the final Differential Calculus Competency Test, we also had the final questionnaire for the strategies, also indicating their final grade in that course.
Each of them was given an examination on differential calculus and a questionnaire which asks them to rate on what extent do they act on the listed study strategies used by different students. Results from the examination were computed and weighed. 70% of their final grades and 30% of their examination grade results were totaled and ranked according to the top performing student to the lowest performing student. Top 30% of the students were classified as upper class and bottom 30% of the students were classified as lower class.
The response of the students in upper class are grouped together and so as in the lower class. Chi-square test was then used to determine the significance or the reliability of a study strategy then, each strategy is analyzed and interpreted for the reason of it’s becoming significant or insignificant with regard to the data of the upper and lower class. Finally, the significant and insignificant strategies are grouped forming the standard of having effective studying strategies in Differential Calculus through the data obtained from our respondents, the third year BSED Math. Results: Statement of the Hypothesis
Ho1:There is no significant difference in the learning strategies between the upper class and the lower class. Ha1:There is a significant difference in the learning strategies between the upper class and the lower class Ho2:There is no significant relationship between the learning strategy and competency in Differential Calculus. Ha2:There is a significant relationship between the learning strategy and competency in Differential Calculus. PRESENTATION OF DATA, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Table 1: Classification of students as to upper class or lower class by 70% their final grade and 30% their test score. Student |Final Grade |Test Score |Competency Grade |Classification (Upper 30%, middle and Lower | | | |Equivalent |(70%MG+30%TSE) |30%) | |1 |2. 4 |3. 0 |2. 49 |Upper class | |2 |1. 8 |3. 9 |2. 43 |Upper class | |3 |2. |3. 2 |2. 36 |Upper class | |4 |1. 9 |3. 4 |2. 35 |Upper class | |5 |1. 7 |3. 4 |2. 21 |Upper class | |6 |2. 0 |2. 3 |2. 09 |Upper class | |7 |1. |3. 0 |2. 02 |Upper class | |8 |1. 0 |3. 0 |1. 60 |Upper class | |9 |1. 8 |3. 4 |2. 28 |Upper class | |10 |2. 7 |3. 9 |3. 06 |Lower class | |11 |1. |3. 7 |2. 72 |Middle class | |12 |1. 9 |4. 1 |2. 56 |Upper class | |13 |1. 9 |2. 9 |2. 20 |Upper class | |14 |2. 5 |3. 9 |2. 92 |Middle class | |15 |2. |4. 1 |2. 90 |Middle class | |16 |2. 3 |4. 3 |2. 90 |Middle class | |17 |2. 4 |3. 7 |2. 79 |Middle class | |18 |2. 4 |3. 7 |2. 79 |Middle class | |19 |2. 4 |3. |2. 79 |Middle class | |20 |2. 5 |3. 4 |2. 72 |Middle class | |21 |2. 5 |3. 4 |2. 77 |Middle class | |22 |2. 2 |3. 9 |2. 70 |Middle class | |23 |2. 6 |3. |2. 70 |Middle class | |24 |2. 5 |3. 2 |2. 70 |Middle class | |25 |2. 2 |3. 7 |2. 65 |Middle class | |26 |2. 6 |3. 7 |2. 93 |Lower class | |27 |2. 6 |3. |2. 90 |Middle class | |28 |2. 3 |4. 7 |3. 03 |Lower class | |29 |2. 3 |5. 0 |3. 10 |Lower class | |30 |2. 6 |4. 3 |3. 10 |Lower class | |31 |2. 5 |4. |3. 13 |Lower class | |32 |2. 7 |4. 3 |3. 18 |Lower class | |33 |2. 7 |4. 3 |3. 18 |Lower class | |34 |2. 8 |4. 3 |3. 25 |Lower class | |35 |3. 0 |4. |3. 30 |Lower class | |36 |2. 3 |3. 4 |2. 63 |Upper class | |37 |2. 4 |4. 6 |3. 06 |Lower class | |38 |2. 1 |4. 0 |2. 67 |Middle class | |39 |2. |3. 9 |2. 70 |Middle class | |40 |2. 7 |3. 9 |3. 06 |Lower class | Table 2: Survey results of students belonging in the upper and lower classes and their chi-square with critical region from 5. 99 to 9. 21 |Class’ Response on Study Strategies | | | | |? |Remarks | |Upper Class |Lower Class | | | |Often | |12 | |9 | |9 | |0 | |0 | |7 | |1 | |8 | |4 | |2 | |5 | |2 | |2 |4 | |3 | |4 | |9 | |8 | |3 | |3 | |2 | |8 | |1 | |1 | |7 | |1 | |1 | |3 | |5 | |2 | |1 | |4 | |2 | |Significant |Insignificant | |Actively participating in class |Attending classes everyday | |Do advance reading and problem solving |Listening to lectures | |Using codes in memorizing the lessons |Reviewing each night | |Marking information in notes that may not be understood |Studying books/ hand-outs / notes | |Studying at a quiet and conducive place |Asking peers for tutorial | |Referring to the internet for more information about the lessons |Using other books for additional information | Determining specific objectives when studying |Working on assignments from the most difficult to the easiest subject | |Having positive attitude towards studying |Having a fixed schedule on when to study | | |Restudying after examination | | |Cramming or studying only before the tests starts | | |Studying the lessons at once | | |Having a specific time set aside for studying | | |Studying when tired | | |Getting the overall picture before studying in detail | | |Inquiring for professional assistance (librarians, tutors, teachers, | | |experts) when the lesson is not understood | | |Trying and taking time to analyze how useful the lessons is in real | | |life | | |Studying alone | | |Studying with a group | | |Checking videos that are related to the lessons | | |Studying during evenings | | |Writing down new notes to help remember a particular information | | |Not accepting texts and phone calls whenever studying | | |Making a diagram of the information to see the relationship better | | |Finding studying to be burdensome | | |Taking online tests | Discussion Though in this study, we are focusing more of the effective strategies on studying differential calculus, we not only consider the strategies applied by the excellent students, but also find the strategies applied by the lower students. Table 1 show the classification of the students who performed best, average and low.
The best 30% of the students were grouped in the upper class, average performing students in the middle class and bottom 30% performing students were grouped in the lower class. We reject the middle class and focus on the upper and the lower class’ studying strategies for we are taking in consideration, the extremes in our samples which are the most effective strategies and the least effective ones. We find the common strategies used by both classes and the unique strategies used by the upper class students. The strategy that is not within the scope of the critical region in the Chi-square, which is between 5. 99 and 9. 21, is accepted by our null hypothesis and therefore has no significant relationship to the competency of a student.
In the other hand, if it is within the said boundaries, the null hypothesis is rejected and therefore the certain strategy has a significant relationship to the competency of the student. The commonly used strategies shall be rejected and we then filter the uniquely used techniques by most of the upper class students, to be able to extract the effective strategies that we intend to get from this study. As we can see from table 2, we only found eight (8) statically significant strategies out of thirty-three (33). This though, does not mean that the ‘insignificant’ study strategies are ineffective at all. They may be effective but the 8 ‘significant’ strategies were found to be the most ffective as to the response of the sample students from the population of all the third year BSEd Math students. All of the strategies above were used by students of different levels of learning in differential calculus and it is found out that a strategy is considered to be the most effective when mostly of the students who performed best in calculus highly carried it out. But, it may be considered ‘ineffective’ when both the upper and the lower class equally or closely carried the strategy out. Upon knowing the most effective strategies by the use of table 2, we know segregate significant strategies effective for competency of third year BSEd Math in differential calculus from the less effective ones. This is shown in Table 3. Conclusions
Differential Calculus is a complicated and difficult subject matter but this lesson, sharpens the analytical skills of the students to be able for them to be ready in the real world wherein critical thinking and analysis is needed to excel. This subject is applicable in every aspect of one’s life, even if we may not realize it. In relation to this, long term knowledge on this subject is needed. This kind of knowledge is not attained in an instant. This involves a process of training the mind which is done through study strategies. Each and every student taking or who has taken this course has different ways on learning the subject because individuals are of a unique type of learner.
All of the strategies in studying differential calculus stated in the previous pages may be effective for a type of learner but ineffective for the other but there are some techniques that are effective enough in inculcating the lessons in the minds of students. And in this study, we found out that those methods or strategies were used by majority of the students who still excels in the subject even after taking it up. These may then help other students who might be performing badly or who has poor mastery in Differential Calculus and may be in the other subjects to excel or somehow improve their learning and competency. We come up with eight (8) techniques in studying differential calculus in such a way that the lessons learned would still remain in the student’s mind even through time from the gathered data from the respondents.
These are the following: (1) active participation in class (2) advance reading and problem solving (3) the use of codes in memorizing lessons (4) marking information in notes that may not be understood (5) studying at a quiet and conducive place (6) referring to the internet for more information about the lessons (7) determining specific objectives when studying, and lastly, (8) having positive attitude towards studying. Recommendation In the light of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following recommendations are given: 1. Students should have a fixed schedule in studying. A good, well thought out schedule can be a lifesaver. It’s up to you to learn how to develop a schedule that meets your needs, revise it if necessary and most important, and follow it. 2. You can study anywhere. Obviously, some places are better than others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place you choose to study should not be distracting. Distractions can build up, and the first thing you know, you’re out of time and out of luck.
Make choosing a good physical environment a part of your study habits. 3. Like reading, note-taking is a skill which must be learned and refined. Almost invariably, note taking, or the lack of it, is a constant deficiency in the study methods of many high school and college students. Learning the ingredients of good note taking is rather easy; applying them to your own situation depends on how serious you are in becoming a successful student. 4. As you prepare for examinations, tests, or other assessments, you should spend time reviewing and revising your lecture notes. Begin the process by reviewing your notes right after a lecture. If you wait too long, you may discover that the notes just don’t make sense.
Don’t hesitate to revise your notes based on the review process. 5. A similar study should be conducted to consider how the studying strategies predict the academic performance of the students in other mathematics areas. References Aluja, A. , & Blanch, A. (2004). Socialized personality; scholastic aptitudes, study habits, and academic achievement: Exploring the link. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20(3), 157-165. DOI: 10. 1027/1015-5759. 20. 3. 157 Bray, J. H. , Maxwell, H. E. , & Schmeck, R. R. (1980). A psychometric investigation of the survey of study habits and attitudes. Applied Psychological Masurement, 4(2), 195-201. DOI: 10. 177/014662168000400206. Brown, W. R, & Holtzman, W. (1956). Brown-Holtzman Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA), 1956 manual. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 20(3), 237. Brown, W. R, & Holtzman, W. (1957). Test Review: Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4(1), 75-76. Brown, W. R, & Holtzman, W. (1969). Survey of study habits and attitudes. Journal of Educational Measurement, 6, 120-122. Efklides, A. (2008). Metacognition: defining its facets and levels of functioning in relation to self-regulation and co-regulation. European Psychologist, 13(4), 277–287. Goldfried, M. R. , & D’Zurilla, T. G. (1973).
Prediction of academic competence by means of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64(1), 116-122. doi:10. 1037/h0034068. Holtzman, W. H. , & Brown, W. F. (1968). Evaluating the study habits and attitudes of high school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 59(6), 404-409. Hurlburt, G. , Kroeker, R. , & Gade, F. (1991). Study orientation, persistence and retention of native students: Implications for confluent education. Journal of American Indian Education, 30(3), 16-23. “Is there Life after Calculus”, October 20, 2010 (http://www. math. cornell. edu/Courses/lifeaftercalc. html#analysis) Magno, C. 2009a). Assessing grade school students’ metacognition in solving mathematical problem. The Assessment Handbook, 2, 1-21. Magno, C. (2009b). Investigating the effect of school ability on self-efficacy, learning approaches, and metacognition. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 18(2), 233-244. Magno, C. (2010). Looking at Filipino pre-service teachers’ value for education through epistemological beliefs about learning and Asian values. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 19(1), 61-78. Murray, C. , & Wren, C. T. (2003). Cognitive, Academic, and Attitudinal Predictors of the Grade Point Averages of College Students with Learning Disabilities.
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Related factors of the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes and the Vocational Preference Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5(2), 215-219. Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regukation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Bokaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds. ), Selfregulation: Theory, research and applications (pp. 13-19). Orlando. APPENDIX Respondents Personal Data: Age:_____ Course: Sex: ___F ___MGrade in Differential Calculus Finals:________ Directions: Please Check the Option that best describes you. O-Often S-Sometimes N-Never |STATEMENTS: |O |S |N | |I attend classes every day. | | | |I listen to the lecture. | | | | |I don’t actively participate in class. | | | | |I review each night. | | | | |I study my books/handouts/ notes. | | | | |I don’t do advance reading and problem solving. | | | | |I ask my peers to tutor me. | | | | |I don’t use codes in memorizing the lessons. | | | | |I use other books for additional information. | | | | |I work on my assignments in from the most difficult to the easiest subject. | | | |I don’t mark the information in my notes that I may not understand. | | | | |I have a fixed schedule on when to study. | | | | |I restudy after the examination. | | | | |I cram or study only before the test starts. | | | | |I don’t study all the lessons at once. | | | | |I have a specific time set aside for my studying. | | | | |I study at a quiet and conducive place. | | | | |I don’t refer to the internet for more information about the lessons. | | | |I study even if I’m tired. | | | | |I get the overall picture before I study in detail | | | | |I don’t determine any specific objectives when I study. | | | | |I have a positive attitude towards studying. | | | | |I inquire for professional assistance (librarians, tutors, teachers, experts) when I do not understand my | | | | |lessons. | | | | |I do not try and take time to analyze how useful the lesson is in real life. | | | |When I study alone, I learn more. | | | | |I study with a group. | | | | |I check for videos in YouTube that are related to my lessons. | | | | |I don’t study during the evening. | | | | |I write down new notes to help me remember the information. | | | | |I don’t accept texts and phone calls whenever I’m studying. | | | | |I make a diagram of the information to see the relationship better. | | | | |I find studying to be burdensome. | | | |I take online tests to improve my skills. | | | | Cebu Normal University Osmena Blvd. , Cebu City Transmittal Letter to Informants October 06, 2010 Dear Fellow Students, Good Day! We, BSEd-Math III students of Cebu Normal University College of Teacher Education, are presently conducting a study entitle “Studying Strategies and Differential Calculus Competency of BSEd Math III students”. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the strategies of the students in studying Differential Calculus. In this connection, kindly answer the attached questionnaire honestly and candidly. We assure you that the data gathered will be treated with utmost confidentiality.
Your positive response will surely contribute to the success of our research study. Thank you and God Bless. Respectfully yours, EDEN KEY L. FELICILDA GIA MONICA S. MACION Noted By: DR. AMELIA M. BONOTAN Research Instructor,CNU Cebu Normal University Osmena Blvd. Cebu City College of Teacher Education Introduction to Research Studying Strategies and Differential Calculus Competency of BSEd Math III Student Felicilda, Eden Key L. Macion, Gia Monica S. Submitted to: Dr. Amelia M. Bonotan ———————– Results Effective Strategies in Studying Differential Calculus INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Studying strategies DEPENDENT VARIABLES Competency in Differential Calculus