THE EFFECT OF STUDY HABITS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FRESHMEN Information Technology STUDENTS IN National UNIVERSITY, Sampaloc Manila, SCHOOL YEAR 2010-2011” A research proposal Table of Contents Chapter Page 1 The Problem Introduction… … … … . 1 Conceptual Framework… … . . . 3 Schematic Diagram… … . . . . . 3 Statement of the Problem.. … . . .. 5 Null Hypothesis.. … . . . . . . . 6 Significance of the Study.. … . . . .. 6 Scope and Limitations.. … . . . . .. 8 Definition of Terms.. … . . . . . . . 8 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies. . . .. 10 3 Research Methodology.. … . . . . .. 17 Research Design. … . . . . . . . . 17 Samplings and Respondents.. … . . . . . 17 Research Setting.. … . . . . . . .. 18 Data Gathering.. … . . . . . . . . 18 Instruments Use.. … . . . . . . . . 19 Bibliography.. … . . . . . . . . . . .. 20 Appendices.. … . . . . . . . . . . .. 23 Curriculum Vitae.. … . . . . . . . . … 27 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM A. Introduction The extent of student’s learning in academics may be determined by the grades a student earns for a period of learning has been done.
It is believed that a grade is a primary indicator of such learning. If a learner earns high grades it is concluded that they may also have learned a lot while low grades indicate lesser learning. However, many experiences and studies found out that there are also several factors that would account for the grades. No single factor can be definitely pointed out as predicting grades. It has been an interplay of so many factors – gender, IQ, study habits, age, year level, parent’s educational attainment, social status, number of siblings, birth order, etc.
In fact, almost all of existing environmental and personal factors are a variable of academic performance. However, at this point in time, the researchers would like to investigate the possible relationship of study habits and the factors affecting it to the academic achievement of under graduate education students of National University-Manila. The investigation of on this area thus becomes a real and compelling motivation for the researchers to conduct this study. B. Conceptual Framework Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study.
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLE Study Habits Time Management Learning Skills Study Skills Independent variables as it influence the dependent variable of this research are on the bases of psychological and educational theories, principles and concepts. Many studies say that learning are better acquired and mastered as soon as the learner attends to it. Gestalt psychology mentions the Law of Proximity referring to the way in which he tends to form groups according to the way they are spaced, with the nearer once being grouped together (Tria, et.
Al. , 1998). As applied to learning, this refers to the closeness in space or in time. Furthermore, it explains why it is easier to remember recent events and hence more easily joined with the interest of the present in a common Gestalt (tria, et. Al. , 1998). In application to learning process, immediate and regular study periods and doing school requirements tend to result in a better performance than delayed and erratic study periods do. Diverse study techniques, even for the improvement of memory tress the importance of immediacy in remembering and learning. Thorndikes Law of Exercise further supports this kind of principle asserting that, other things being equal, the more frequent a modifiable connection between a situation and response is used, the stronger is the connection. When a modifiable connection between a situation and a response is not being use over a period of time, the strength of that connection is weakened. A behaviour that is stimulated over regular periods will tend to be repeated leading to habit formation.
A student who has developed this kind of behaviour, in this case, in terms of having regular and scheduled study periods and follows certain methods in studying proves to have better performance. The study focuses on the factors affecting study habits, influencing the academic performance of the student. In this view, the researchers wanted to study the factors in which affect the study habits. C. Statement of the Problem This study intended to find out the factors affecting the study habits of undergraduate XU -Education students. It also aimed to answer the following questions: 1) What is the profile of the respondents according to: 1. Time management 1. 2 Learning Skills 1. 3 Study Skills 2) What extent of influence did the independent variables have on student study habits? 3) Did the independent variables significantly influence students study habits? D. Null Hypothesis Based on the three specific problems which are of concern of this research, problem 1 is hypothesis-free. For problems 2 and 3 however, the following null hypotheses were stated. Ho1: The independent variables do not significantly influence the study habits. Ho2: Time management, Learning skills and study skills do not have a significant influence on study habits E.
Significance of the Study The researchers believes that students, particularly National University will be benefited from the findings of this study since the study provides basis for awareness and better understanding of how their current study habits affected their academic performance. Likewise gives them a more focused and clear perspective on how the specific behaviors related to their studies influenced study habits. Consequently, this awareness also gives a much deeper understanding of their selves as students considering that the college life is typically beset of developmental adjustment demands.
School administrators, like subject area coordinators, may also be guided in the formulation of future modification of educational policies, curriculum and strategies toward a more effective delivery of learning. Teachers will also be help in understanding better the diversity of learning of their students. As such, it is hoped that they could develop more effective methodologies in teaching their subject matter. Guidance and Counselling Centre will also be help by this study through providing a more focused and factual knowledge on the factors affecting students study habits.
This increased the understanding of the Guidance Counsellors on the interplay of the variables studied in this research. Such knowledge is hoped to help the Guidance and Counselling practitioners towards the development and implementation of more effective programs in consideration of these variables. Students will be given information on how study affects their academic performance. The result of the study will make them aware of the common study habits among their co- education students. Future Researchers, they may be able to use the result of the study in farther research similar to what the study is.
F. Scope and Limitations The scopes of this research are the Education students here in National University of all year levels. The limitations of this research are only those students that are currently enrolled at NU and is having the prescribe study load for a given semester. Only those undergraduate IT students are allowed to participate in the research. This study considered only National University and the students of it. This may have an effect on the generalizability of the study and its findings.
However, its findings, at least some portion and extent of it may still hold true to other schools possessing the same characteristics or adhering to the same educational vision, mission, objectives, and curricula of the studies of National University. G. Definition of Terms Constitutive Definition: • Factors- one that actively contributes to an accomplishments, results, or process • Develop- to bring out the capabilities or possibilities of • Study Habits- manner which you consistently use to study for school or college or even for the next day lesson. • Students- describe as one who directs zeal at a subject.
Student is used for anyone who is learning. Operational Definition: • Factors- these refers to anything that affects study habits • Develop- refers to fast or gradual changes in a range of time • Study Habits- refers to the ways of studying on aparticular subject • NU Students- referring to all officially enrolled students of National University Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE & STUDIES According to Palm Beach Community College (PBBC, 2008), they recommend that student’s study should have at least three hours out of class for every hour spent in class.
They also said that a student must have a special place to study with plenty of room to work. And students should not be cramped. They presupposes thatstudy time will go better if a learner take a few minutes at the start to straighten things up. A desk and straight-backed chair is usually best. “ Don’t get too comfortable–a bed is a place to sleep, not to study” as what they said. A student must have everything close at hand (book, pencils, paper, coffee, dictionary, computer, calculator, tape recorder, etc. ) before starting to study.
Students are not suggested tospend ontime jumping up and down to get things. The PBCC suggests also thatdistracting noise shouldbe minimized however they said that there aresome people need sound and some like silence. In this case, a learner must finds what works for him or her. Culprits are family and friends. consider a “do not disturb” sign and turning on your answering machine is the way also to have better study habits according to the PBBC.. Frank Pogue(2000) did a research project to determine why students fail.
What he founds to be true in that study habits survey was that more than 30 years ago still rings true today–students fail because they do not know how to study . The best advice he can give is to develop sound study skills. He said that a student should make sure that he/she has a good study environment, a good desk, a sturdy chair, good light, comfortable room temperature and a quiet atmosphere. That means he/she should eliminate all external and internal distractions. Second, get a good overview of the assignment before starting the work.
Know what skills, facts and ideas that are expected to master and the ground that are expected to cover. Start with most difficult subject first, while the mind is freshest and most receptive. Professors in the developing countries said that the undergraduate students should be fully equip with high level of analytical skills, the capacity for critical reasoning, self-reflection and conceptual grasp and ability to learn autonomously and exercise flexibility of mind (Simmons 2003).
Study habits are said to be improving because of the advent and wide use of the Internet, hypertext, and multimedia resources which greatly affects the Study Habits (Liu, 2005). Karim and Hassan (2006) also note the exponential growth digital information, which changes the way students perceive studying and with printed materials that are to be use in facilitating study. Liu (2005) and Ramirez (2003) report that students print material from the Internet in order to study and read later on. Igun (2005) also found that Nigerians study from materials downloaded from the Internet.
Reading is an attempt to absorb the thought of the author and know what the author is conveying (Leedy 1956). Studying is the interpretation of reading materials. Study habits and skills are particularly important for college students, whose needs include time management, note taking, Internet skill, the elimination of distractions, and assigning a high priority to study. Fielden (2004) states that good study habits help the student in critical reflection in skills outcomes such as selecting, analyzing, critiquing, and synthesizing.
Nneji (2002) states that study habits are learning tendencies that enable students work private. The study conducted by Hope L. Graven (2008) on the relationship between an individual’s amount of caffeine consumption during his/her study session and the individual’s study habits showed that the main effect of drinking caffeine on exam preparation was not significant There were participants, 20 male and 58 female college students (N=78), answered self- ratings on their personal consumption of caffeine as ell as their study habits when preparing for a test/exam. It was hypothesized that the more caffeine a student consumes while studying, the more accurately his or her study habits would be labeled as ‘unhealthy’, as determined by the researchers. Unhealthy study habits were operationally defined as low scores on amount of time per study session, time(in days) when preparation began, and amount of information the participants believed they had retained. High scores on anxiety level were included in ‘unhealthy’ study habits.
A Pearson correlation indicated no relationship between amount of caffeine consumed while studying and the individual’s effectiveness of studying and preparation. Marcus Crede and Nathan R. Kuncel (2008) in their research at the University of Albany said that Study habit, skill, and attitude inventories and constructs were found to rival standardized tests and previous grades as predictors of academic performance, yielding substantial incremental validity in predicting academic performance. The meta-analysis examined the construct validity and predictive validity of 10 study skill constructs for college students.
They found that study skill inventories and constructs are largely independent of both high school grades and scores on standardized admissions tests but moderately related to various personality constructs; these results were inconsistent with previous theories. Study motivation and study skills exhibit the strongest relationships with both grade point average and grades in individual classes. They also said that Academic specific anxiety was found to be an important negative predictor of performance. In addition, significant variation in the validity of specific inventories is shown.
Scores on traditional study habit and attitude inventories are the most predictive of performance, whereas scores on inventories based on the popular depth-of-processing perspective are shown to be least predictive of the examined criteria. Overall, study habit and skill measures improve prediction of academic performance more than any other non-cognitive individual difference variable examined to date and should be regarded as the third pillar of academic success. According to the how-to-study. com (2009), students who are very successful in their desired career have good study habits.
It is stated in the website that students apply these habits to all of their classes. The website also recommends some tips in improving study habits. The website also suggests that the student should try not to study all the subjects in just a period. The website also added that if you try to do too much studying at one time, you will tire and your studying will not be very effective. Space the work you have to do over shorter periods of time. Taking short breaks will restore your mental energy. A study conducted by University of Kentucky was to determine if the college success can be improved with the Student Attitude Inventory (SAI).
The inventory was developed in Britain and contains 47 items which attempt to identify students in higher education on the basis of: (1) motivation, (2) study methods, (3) examination technique, and (4) lack of distractions toward academic work. Students in six Kentucky community colleges were asked to express their attitudes toward study habits on the Student Attitude Inventory. There were 996 students in the sample population (413 males and 583 females). A measure of ability (composite American College Test score) and academic performance (cumulative grade-point average) were obtained for each student sampled.
The Student Attitude Inventory did contribute a statistically significant amount of variance beyond an ability measure for males and females. ( Mark E. Thompson, 2005) According to Mark Crilly (2000), Successful students are able to balance social activities with good study habits. A diversion from studies will alleviate stress and help prevent from becoming fatigued. He said that a student should make sure that he must take a break for an hour after studies to meet with friends, to play some cards, work out at the gym, or to gab with a new acquaintance.
For this way, that student will find concentration when he do study, if he plans a social activity afterwards. He said, “To develop a healthy social life, develop routine study habits. After supper, lug your books and homework to the library, find a comfortable and quiet niche, and study for two or three hours, taking intermittent 10 minute breaks every 45 minutes or so. ” Making friends with whom you share similar study habits, and share a table or a study space with them would be a best way in developing study habits as what Mark said. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methodology that will be use in the conduct of this study and will include the discussion of research design, samplings, respondents, data gathering and statistical instrument used. A. The Research Design The study will use the descriptive survey design in its attempt to determine, describe and analyze relationships between time management, learning skills, and study skills and the dependent variable which is the study habits. It tries to find out if the independent variables significantly influence the dependent variable.
B. Samplings and Respondents Information Students who are enrolled during the recent school year at National University which is comprised 5 percent of the total population will the sample size of the study. The sample population is 286 taken the total from the 1000 Education students of National University. The names of the students of the total population will be arranged alphabetically and according to year levels. Simple stratified random method, proportionate to size will be done based on the random numbers generated by Minitab or Excel.
Names will then be picked up and these will be included in the sample population. C. Research Settings The study will be conducted inside the Main Building in National University-Manila. D. Data Gathering The researchers will ask permission from the dean of The College of Computer Studies to allow the education student to answer the questionnaire. The answering of the questionnaire will be done in the Learning Research Centre (LRC). Answered questionnaires then, will be gather, responses coded and will be subject to the appropriate statistical computation for reliability.
These students name will then be deleted from the list of the total population so as not to include them again in the selection of the sample population. E. Instruments Use Self- developed questionnaire composed of 10 items questions will be use to measure Study Habits of Education Students. Bibliography Books Tulio, D. , Foundation of Education 2. Mandaluyong City: Echanis Press, 2008 Noll, J. , Educational Issues, USA: Mcgraw-Hill Companies, 2006 Thomas, G. , Education and Theory ( Strangers in Paradigm), New York: Open University Press, 2007 Hargreaves, S. Study Skills for Dyslexic Students, California: SAGE Publication Inc. ,2007 Schultz, F. , Annual Editions Education, USA: Mcgraw-Hill Companies, 2005 Fullan, M. , and Germain, C. , Learning Places, USA: Corwin Press, 2006 McGregor, D. , Developing Thinking Developing Learning, England: Open University Press, 2007 Mirasol, G. C. , Extent of Influence of Study Habits, Attitude and Peer Relationship on Students’ Academic Performance: St. Michael’s College, Secondary Level, Philippines: 2002 Internet Links The Ten Study Habits of Successful Students”, February 18, 2009 (http://how-to-study. com/study-habits. htm) “Establishing Good Study Habits”, February 16, 2009 (http://www. academictips. org/acad/literature/establishinggoodstudyhabits. html ) “Study habits of postgraduate students in selected Nigerian universities”, February 14, 2009: by Igun, Stella E. ,Adogbeji, Oghenevwogaga Benson (http://www. articlearchives. com/education-training/students-student-life/1548550-1. html) Appendix COVER LETTER TO THE QUESTIONAIRE ON STUDY HABITS Dear_______________________, A blessed day!
I have the honor to request your participation in the study presently conducted by the researchers in National University. The study wants to know the factors affecting study habits and their relationships on your academic performance. Its respondents are the undergraduate students of this university. Such study is a requirement for the completion of the subject Technical Writing And Research Report currently taking at National University, Sampaloc, Manila. We are therefore requesting you to give this questionnaire your utmost attention.
Rest assured that your responses here will only be used for the study and therefore are confidential from other persons not related in any way to the study. Thank you very much. Sincerely, Abillon. Jr, Danilo Javier, Franz Josef Tutaan, Lord Alfonse Rosita, Jaysi The researchers Survey Questionnaire on Study Habits Name_______________________ Course & Year______________ Age______ Gender_______ Date________________ Direction: Please put check (v) on the space that corresponds to what you are actually doing, thinking, and feeling regarding the statement.
There are no right and wrong answers to this questionnaire. Rest assured that your answers will be treated in strictest and will be used only for this study. 1. What is your gender? Male_____ Female______ 2. What year are you in college? 1st year____ 2nd year_____ 3rd year_____ 4th year______ 3. What is your average grade? 4. 0____ 3. 5__ _ _ __ 3. 0______ 2. 5______2. 0______ 1. 5_____1. 0______ 4. How far in advance do you start studying for finals? One month____Two weeks______One week_____Days before_____ The night before_______ 5. What time of day do you do the most studying? Morning (6 a. . to noon)_____ Afternoon (noon to 6 p. m. )_____ Evening (6 p. m. to 9 p. m. )_____ Night (9 p. m. to 12 a. m. )_____ Late night (12 a. m. to 6 a. m. )_____ 6. On average, how many hours do you study for finals? 20-24 hours______ 15-19 hours_______10-14 hours_______ 5-9 hours________1-4 hours_______ 7. What is your favorite way to study? Repeating points out loud_____ Writing index/flash cards, then using them_______ Writing outlines_______ Highlighting text______ studying in a group__________ Going to review sessions______ Other, please describe : ________________ 8.
Where is your favorite place to study? Dorm room_____ Bedroom_______ Dorm common room/lounge_______ Library______ Coffee shop_______ Parents’ home______ Campus ______ Pub/Bar__ _ __ Student union_______ Other, please describe:_______________ 9. What is your favorite study break? Exercise_______ Watching TV/movie____ Surfing the Internet_______ Napping_________ Socializing______ Playing video games________ Praying/meditating__ _ __ _ Other, please describe: _______________ 10. Do you feel increased stress or anxiety leading up to exam time? Yes____ No_____