In South Asiatic states agribusiness is the major beginning of economic system. Due the deficiency of rain in the part the irrigation methods are limited and the demand is to conserve every bit much H2O as possible available in a part. The detector system described in this study analyzes the thought of a H2O preservation technique for big country of Fieldss utilizing an supersonic detector device. Water preservation is non merely a husbandman ‘s demand but besides a authorities demand. The thought is targeted towards a part where there is deficiency of irrigation installations due to less or no rain. The chief rival of the thought is the rain feeling device that is used in agricultural Fieldss but the thought in this study suits a part where the worst instance scenario can be no rain at all. The study will explicate the existent job in item with an thought to plan and implement a system along with the cost demands.
The H2O preservation technique mentioned in the executive sum-up requires a specific irrigation method by which reservoirs are filled up with H2O. A common and traditional irrigation system in the most of the South Asiatic part is utilizing a tubing good [ 1 ] which is an electrically powered machine that extracts H2O from an aquifer deep inside the Earth and fills it in a reservoir. By and large one reservoir is meant to water one spot ( country of 50m ten 50m ) of a land. A reservoir may be required to make full more than one time if the country of field is large and all this has to be done manually. Once the reservoir is wholly filled the tubing well is turned off manually and so its recess is opened and H2O starts traveling into the field. This procedure is clip devouring and can take to reservoir overflow if the tubing good is non turned off.
Figure: Shows an ordinary tubing good
The undertaking is to forestall wastage of H2O by forestalling any sort of H2O flood. The sum of H2O needed by the husbandman can be fed into the feeling system in volumes. This volume cheque can be done utilizing a detector device that keeps on observing the degree of the H2O in the reservoir. The detector can be placed merely beneath Grey pipe as shown in the figure so that it points directly down on the reservoir. Once the needed H2O volume is reached, the tubing good should be turned off and H2O mercantile establishment should be opened. If the needed volume is more than the reservoir volume, the detector delaies till all the H2O moves into the field through the mercantile establishment. Once the reservoir is empty, the mercantile establishment is closed and the tubing good one time once more starts pumping the H2O into the reservoir. This procedure is repeated until the coveted volume is reached.
Without this detection technique the husbandman might hold to wait for a long clip ( depending on the flow of H2O from the tubing good ) before all the Fieldss are irrigated. This detection technique save a batch of clip and H2O and it needs to be installed along with the complete irrigation system ( i.e. reservoir, tube good ) . This system is designed for the people in farming and agribusiness. The system is more efficient if there is a huge country of land to be irrigated as it takes more clip to this manually. Furthermore the chief intent of this system is to conserve H2O and electricity and hence the detection device on the tubing good can be financially sponsored if approved by the authorities.
2.1 System Specification
Some of the system specifications are given below.
Supersonic Senor to observe the degree of H2O
A Keypad to input the H2O measure in either in volumes.
A microcontroller to command mercantile establishment valve gap and shutting. It besides controls the motor running tube good.
Once the system gathers the information sing the volume of the H2O, the husbandman can so travel on to make some other work without worrying about any wastage of H2O and electricity.
2.2 Development Costss
The entire budget of the feeling device should non be more than a fraction of the entire cost of the irrigation system.
Tube Well Motor- $ 1000- $ 10000 ( depending on motor Horsepower ) , Reservoir Tank – $ 500- $ 2000 ( depending on size )
The cost of the detection equipment and other controls are
Supersonic Water Sensor – $ 400
Keypad control – $ 20
Microcontroller- $ 50
Other Costs – $ 50
The overall monetary value for the detector mechanism is around $ 520 which is about 14.05 % the cost of an mean tubing well system ( $ 3000 tubing good + $ 700 reservoir = $ 3700 ) .The effectivity of the system is much more than its monetary value and it can be a really cost efficient system maintaining in head the electricity consumed by the motor.
3 Review and Current State of art
Water Detection techniques utilizing detectors have been implemented in rather different ways. The design described is this study has a different scheme which is H2O preservation utilizing H2O degree sensing. There are other methods that already in pattern which uses detectors to continue H2O. Most of the methods are based on H2O feeling methods. The detector fundamentally detects the H2O and so it can either trip an dismay or shut the supply of H2O. They can be either be wired or radio.
One of the H2O preservation techniques is the “ Rain-Activated Sprinkler Shut-Off System ” [ 2 ] . This system ( U.S. Patent 5087886 ) plants in a similar manner as described earlier. The Sensor on the sprinkler detects a certain sum of rainfall and so close down the H2O supply from the sprinkler. Another detector technique widely implemented is the Wireless Rain-ClickTM Rain Sensor. This detector is developed under U.S. Patent 6570109 B2 ( Quick Shut-Off extended scope hygroscopic rain detector for irrigation systems ) [ 3 ] . In simple words this detector has a hygroscopic phonograph record that detects rainfall and with a mechanical action is able to halt the irrigation supply once it has rained sufficiently. Once the phonograph record becomes dry for some clip which means there has been no rain for rather some clip, the irrigation is supply is turned on [ 4 ] . These applications are more specific towards H2O preservation in instance of rainfall.
The system mentioned in this study is rather alone and is more effectual in countries where there is deficit of H2O for irrigation intents. The functionality of this design depends on the measuring done by the supersonic detector. The detector detects the H2O level/volume in the reservoir and one time the mark H2O degree has reached, the reservoir mercantile establishment clears and the H2O starts traveling out in the field. The supersonic detector is used here because it is easy to put in and its monetary value is good within the budget. There are besides other methods by which the H2O degree of reservoir can mensurate, one of which is utilizing a submergible overseas telegram detector. These detectors are cheaper than the supersonic detector and are best used for deeper countries but they have two major drawbacks. First, they merely offer basic characteristics [ 5 ] and secondly they are non compatible with most of the interfaces and microcontrollers. Furthermore the supersonic detector is a non contact detector and uses the latest engineering to supply extremely accurate consequences for low to medium degree deepness countries.
4 Preferred Design and Implementation
The supersonic detector uses a transducer to change over the electrical energy to sound energy and frailty versa and its working is reasonably much similar to that of a echo sounder system used in pigboats. In this system the high frequence supersonic moving ridges are emitted towards the underside of the reservoir and these moving ridges get reflected from the H2O surface are received back by the detector. The Senor calculates the clip continuance between the transmittal and response and can so mensurate the H2O degree.
4.1 Quantitative Specification and Design Detail
The mean dimension of a reservoir is 6ft ten 5ft ten 6ft and the detector would be placed merely beneath the pump at approximately 1ft from the top of the reservoir. The line of sight of the detector should be free of obstructions for accurate consequences. The detector used here is rainproof and there is no demand for any particular protection. The moving ridges are sent out with the velocity of sound ( 330 m/s ) but a alteration in the ambiance ( temperature, humidness etc ) can change the velocity of sound and bring forth inaccurate consequences. This issue can be dealt by proper standardization of the system.
Figure: System Specification
The overall weight of the supersonic detector transducer should non be more than 700 gms. The detector is controlled by a microcontroller which controls the tubing good motor and the reservoir mercantile establishment.
The user can input the needed volume of H2O through the computer keyboard and can so get down the operation. The entire distance travelled by the supersonic moving ridges will be the distance from the detector to the H2O surface and back to the detector which comes out to be ( removes the mistake ) . The entire distance can be calculated by. The distance is halved and so 2 pess distance is subtracted from it to give the existent distance between the H2O surface and the reservoir top. The H2O degree can be calculated by deducting the “ existent distance ” from the tallness of the reservoir. Once the H2O degree is know so the volume of the H2O can be can be calculated as The feeling mechanism will necessitate some wiring from the microcontroller to the detector, mercantile establishment and the motor and should non be more than $ 20. The detector being used consists of both the sender and receiving system so there is no demand for separate specifications. The microcontroller needs to programmed and powered by the chief supply and it is the control mechanism for detector, mercantile establishment and the motor.
The transducer embedded in the detector is the piezo transducer which emits the supersonic moving ridges in the signifier of cone utilizing the piezo consequence. They are much cheaper and efficient than their opposite numbers and hence used here. The microcontroller receives the H2O degree from the Senor and can so cipher the volume of H2O in the reservoir. If the reservoir becomes full and the coveted volume non attained, the microcontroller shuts down H2O supply to reservoir and opens the mercantile establishment to let go of the H2O. At this minute the detector once more starts to look into the H2O degree and one time the reservoir is empty, the detector notifies the microcontroller which in bends closes the mercantile establishment and starts the H2O supply once more. This procedure is performed till the coveted volume is achieved.
Figure: System Process List
4.3 Performance and Accuracy
The public presentation of the detector relies on the environment about. An mean supersonic detector can work in temperatures from -100C to 700C bring forthing an mean truth of 1.0 % for a deepness of 6-10 foot. Performance can be affected by blockading the way of the supersonic moving ridges and therefore the detector should be installed at an appropriate topographic point ( below the tubing good pipe ) .
5 Prototype Delivery
The full working paradigm can be constructed within 30-35 yearss. Buying a tubing good mechanism with a reservoir will be around $ 3700.The building would affect implanting and programming the detector system and the computer keyboard ( $ 20 ) with the microcontroller ( $ 50 ) . It can be developed and tested in approximately 30 yearss clip. In the concluding portion of the development the reservoir dimensions are coded into the paradigm and the detector is steadfastly installed on the tubing good pipe. Finally, the connexions to the motor and the mercantile establishment are made with the concluding trial being performed on site. The reservoir implemented here is a metallic H2O armored combat vehicle but in some topographic points the reservoirs are constructed utilizing bricks which mean that concluding portion of the development needs to be done on the site of the reservoir. The labor on this should non be more than $ 70.
The successful execution of the detector system will salvage husbandman ‘s clip by automatically managing the pumping of the H2O into the reservoir and so onto the Fieldss. It will besides salvage electricity as the motor will merely be turned on when required thereby conserving H2O. The system can be of a great success in topographic point where there is deficit of H2O and electricity. The detector seems to be a spot expensive in the beginning but if this thought is approved and implemented, and so this might convey competition from other tubing well companies. Having rivals in the same field would finally take to the purchase of majorities of supersonic detectors thereby cut downing their monetary value per unit.
Figure: Screen shooting of the Patent [ 2 ] ( Rain activated sprinkler )
Figure: Screenshot of Patent [ 4 ] ( Hygroscopic Rain Sensor for Irrigation