Topographic point welding is a procedure in which reaching metal surface are joined by the heat obtained from opposition to electric current flow. Work-pieces are held together under force per unit area exerted by electrode. Typically the sheet are in the 0.5 to 3 millimeter thickness scope. The procedure uses two forms copper metal electrodes to concentrate welding current into a little i??spoti?? and to at the same time clamp the sheet together. Coercing a big current through the topographic point will run the metal and organize the dyer’s rocket.
The sum of energy is chosen to fit the sheeti??s stuff belongingss, it thickness, and type of electrode. Applying excessively small energy woni??t melt the metal or will do a hapless dyer’s rocket. Applying excessively much energy will run excessively much metal and do a hole instead than a weld [ 1 ] .
Topographic point welding involves three phases ; the first phase which involves the electrodes being brought to the surface of the metal and using a little sum of force per unit area. The current from the electrodes is so applied briefly. After the current is removed, the electrodes remain in topographic point in order for the stuff to chill. Weld times range from 0.01 sec to 0.63 sec depending on the thickness of the metal, the electrode force and the diameter of the electrodes.
The equipment used in the topographic point welding procedure consists of tool holders and electrodes. The tool holders function as a mechanism to keep the electrodes steadfastly in topographic point and besides back up optional H2O hosieries which cool the electrodes during welding. The electrodes by and large are made of a low opposition metal, normally Cu, and are designed in many different forms and sizes depending on the application needed.
Design of experiments ( DOE ) is a techniques that enable a interior decorators to find at the same time a synergistic effects of a factors that effected the consequence in any design. Design of experiments ( DOE ) helps to nail the sensitive partss and sensitive countries in a designs. The interior decorator are so able to repair these jobs and acquire the optimal parametric quantity of design.
Response surface methodological analysis ( RSM ) explores the relationship between explanatory variables and response variable in statistic. Response surface methodological analysis ( RSM ) is a sequence of design of experiments ( DOE ) to obtain an optimum response. It is sufficient to find which explanatory variables have an impact on the involvement of response variables.
1.2 Problem Statement
Resistance topographic point welding ( RSW ) is the most effectual procedure for joinning both similar and dissimilar metals. Resistance topographic point welding is normally used in the automotive industries for organic structure assembly production lines. The major advantages of topographic point welding is efficient energy used, and high production rates. To better the strength and good quality of welding the welding parametric quantity is to be investigated. A little alteration of the parametric quantity will consequence all the other parametric quantities. The chief parametric quantity for topographic point welding is welding current, welding clip, force, and hold clip.
Presents, the universe faces of energy crisis and environmetal jobs, energy economy and safety have become the most of import Issuss for car devising industry. To accomplish these ends, weight decrease is the most effectual to take to the fast development and application of advanced high strength steels. In this research, DP600 is an Advanced High Strength Steel ( AHSS ) have been chosen to happen the optimal parametric quantities for the topographic point welding to finding the quality of a weld nugget development because the characteria of the stuff such as light weight, low ratio of output strength to tensile strength, high work indurating capacity and good energy soaking up. The good formability of DP600 allows the users to increase the strength of the constituents. Therefore, the merchandises can be made stronger and safer under burden.
Resistance topographic point welding is a cardinal engineering in automotive assembly industries that the procedure is fast and easy weld many different stuff combination that are hard to fall in by other welding procedure. The weldability of different stuffs such as advanced high strength steel DP600 and low C steel is to investigated quality of a nugget development due to the formation of hardness, tensile strength. This research is to analyze the influence of opposition topographic point welding ( RSW ) parametric quantities such as welding current, welding clip, force per unit area and velocity on the development of nugget formation, focused on dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) .
1.3 Objective Of Study
The chief intent of this survey:
I. To happen the optimal parametric quantity to optimise the size of dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) in order to obtain a good quality of Resistance Spot Welding utilizing Factorial Design and Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) .
II. To developed a mathematical theoretical account to foretell the size of dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) utilizing Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) .
1.4 Significance of the Undertaking
The development mathematical theoretical accounts can be efficaciously used to foretell the size of dyer’s rocket zone which can better the welding quality and public presentation in Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) .
1.5 Scope of Study
The range of survey is to look into on the opposition topographic point welding procedure utilizing Factorial Design and Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) to happen the optimal parametric quantities to optimise the size of dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone. The stuff used is DP600 advanced high strength steel 0.8mm thickness combined with low C steel 1.0mm thickness. The machine used is OBARA guns type diameter 6mm. The electrode Cu alloys item as below:
Alloy RWMA Class Hard Elec. Cond & A ; Desc Use To Weld
CMW 3 2 83B 85 % CU + CHROMIUM CRS & A ; GENERAL WELDING
The microscope used is the compound light microscope. It normally binocular ( two oculars ) . The compound light microscope combines the power of lenses and visible radiation to enlarge the topic being viewed. The ocular allows for 10x or 15x magnification and when combined with three or four aim lenses which can be rotated into the field of position and bring forth higher magnification to a upper limit of around 1000x by and large. In the lab of stuff, microscope is used to watch and catch the image of size dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) .
2.0 Introduction of Resistance Spot Welding ( RSW )
Resistance Spot Welding is a procedure in which metal surface are joined widely used in the automotive structural application for many old ages for the fiction of sheet metal assemblies. The procedure is used for fall ining sheet stuffs and utilizations shaped Cu metal electrodes to use force per unit area and convey the electrical current through the work piece. Heat is developed chiefly at the interface between two sheets, finally doing the stuff being welded to run, organizing a liquefied pool, the dyer’s rocket nugget. The liquefied pool is contained by the force per unit area applied by the electrode tip and the environing solid metal. The opposition topographic point welding has the advantage which is high velocity and suitableness for mechanization.
Figure 1: Resistance Spot Welding Machine with Work [ 3 ]
The size and form of the separately formed dyer’s rockets are limited chiefly by the size and contour of the electrode faces. The dyer’s rocket nugget signifiers at the laying surfaces, as shown in Figure 1, but does non widen wholly to the outer surfaces. In subdivision, the nugget in a decently formed topographic point dyer’s rocket is round or oval in form. Spacing between next topographic point dyer’s rockets or rows of topographic point dyer’s rockets must be adequate to forestall shunting or to restrict it to an acceptable sum.
In Resistance Spot Welding ( RSW ) , methodological analysis is development to find the optimal welding conditions that maximize the strength of articulations. Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) utilized to develop an effectual theoretical account to foretell weld strength by integrating parametric quantities such as force per unit area, weld clip and the others [ 7 ] . In this instance survey from diary that conducted as per cardinal composite face centered design for topographic point welding of 0.2 and 0.3mm thick Cu and brass speciments. Response surface theoretical account interfaced with the Genetic Algorithm to optimise the welding conditions for coveted weld strength. The welding procedure of Cu and brass produced big heat affected zone ( HAZ ) and merger zone ( FZ ) .
Figure 2: Conventional represent [ 7 ]
Table 1: Variables for connection of Cu- brass specimens [ 7 ]
In response surface method the of import is design of experiments. Identified the factors which have a important influence on dyer’s rocket strength. It is weld force per unit area, weld clip, and amplitude of quiver of horn. For 0.2 and 0.3 millimeters thick copper-brass speciments to find upper limit and minimal value of welding parametric quantities big Numberss of test tallies. From the test runs the most suited parametric quantities were identified in table 1 above.
Response surface theoretical account for weld strength is a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques utile for the mold and analysis of jobs in response of involvement is influenced by variables and the aim is to optimise thsi response [ 7 ] . Then developed mathematical theoretical accounts to foretell the dyer’s rocket strength. For the experiments the equation is
Where Lolo is the the response of weld strength, eleven is force per unit area, weld clip and amplitude, i??0, i??j, i??jj and i??ij represent the invariable, additive, quadratic and interaction footings. For the topographic point welding equations like below:
After 20 experiments are conducted at different degrees of parametric quantities the value of weld strength obtained from experiments and those predicted from response surface theoretical account along the design matrix.
Table 2: Weld strength and RSM [ 7 ]
Figure 3: Consequence of amplitude and weld clip on weld strength [ 7 ]
Figure 4: Consequence of force per unit area and weld clip of weld strength [ 7 ]
Figure 5: Consequence of amplitude and force per unit area on weld strength [ 7 ]
And for another experiments that used Response Surface methodoogy ( RSM ) by topographic point welding that used aluminum as a specimen [ 8 ] . They investigated consequence between aluminum froth and the metal spot-welded colum. Based on their experiment. Numeric simulation and analytical theoretical accounts was developed to partition the energy soaking up quantitatively into the froth filter constituent and the chapeau subdivision constituent and the comparative part of each constituent to the synergistic consequence.
Figure 6: conventional drawing of the topographic point welding-welded used in the experiment [ 8 ]
Response Surface Methodology ( RSM ) is a method to understanding the correlativity between multiple input variables and end product variable.
Figure 7: Comparison of the experiment and numerical consequence [ 8 ]
Figure 8: Response surface of sea for the froth filled topographic point welded column [ 8 ]
Figure 9: Response surface of peak force for the froth filled topographic point welded column [ 8 ]
Table 3: Optimum froth filled square column [ 8 ]
From the Response Face methodological analysis ( RSM ) they get the optimal value of the T = thickness, a = thickness, denseness, force per unit area and SEA.
2.1 Electrothermal Process of Welding
In opposition welding, the heat are required to make the coherency is generated by using an electric current through the stack- up of sheets between the electrodes. So, the formation of a welded articulation, including the nugget diameter and the heat- affected zone ( HAZ ) , are decidedly depends on the electrical and thermic belongingss of the sheets and surfacing stuffs. The general look of heat generated in an electric circuit can be expressed as:
Q= Ii?? Rt ( alteration of the Ohmi??s Law ) [ 3 ]
where Q is heat ( Joule ) , I is current ( Ampere ) , R is electrical opposition of the circuit ( ohm, O ) and t is clip ( 2nd ) which is allowed to flux in the circuit. For opposition welding, the heat coevals at all location in a weldment is more relevant than, instead than the entire heat generated, as warming is non and should non be unvarying in the weldment. That means, consideration should more on the heat rate than the entire heat, as it will find the temperature history, and, in bend, the microstructure [ 3 ] . For illustration, sing an aluminium welding, runing may non be happen if the welding current applied is low, due to the low electrical electric resistance of aluminium. In general, the electric and thermic procedure should be considered together in welding.
2.2 Spot Welds Parameter
2.2.1 The parametric quantity
1. Electrode Force
The electrode force is required to squash the metal sheets to be weld and joint together. This requires a big electrode force because the dyer’s rocket quality would non be good plenty. However, the force must non be excessively big as it might do other jobs. When the electrode force is increased the heat energy will diminish. So, the higher electrode force needed a higher weld current. When weld current becomes excessively high, splatter will happen between electrodes and sheets. This will do the electrodes to acquire stuck to the sheet.
2. Squeeze Time
Squeeze Time is the clip interval between the initial application of the electrode force on the work and the first application of current. Squeeze clip is necessary to detain the weld current until the electrode force has attained the coveted degree [ 3 ] .
3. Weld or Heat Time
Weld clip is the clip during which welding current is applied to the metal sheets. The weld clip is measured and adjusted in rhythms of line electromotive force as with all timing maps. As the dyer’s rocket clip is, more or less, related to what is required for the dyer’s rocket topographic point, it is hard to give an exact value of the optimal weld clip. For case:
i?? Weld clip should be every bit short as possible.
i?? The dyer’s rocket parametric quantities should be chosen to give as small erosion of the electrodes as possible. ( short dyer’s rocket clip. ) .
i?? The dyer’s rocket clip shall do the nugget diameter to be large when welding thick sheets.
i?? The dyer’s rocket clip might hold to be adjusted to suit the welding equipment in instance it does non carry through the demands for the dyer’s rocket current and the electrode force. ( A longer weld clip might be needed. ) .
i?? The dyer’s rocket clip shall do the indenture due to the electrode to be every bit little as possible. ( a short dyer’s rocket clip. ) .
i?? The dyer’s rocket clip shall be adjusted to welding with automatic tip-dressing, where the size of the electrode contact surface can be kept at a changeless value. ( a shorter welding clip. ) [ 3 ] .
4. Keep Time
Hold clip is the clip, after the welding and occurred when the electrodes are still applied to the sheet to chill the dyer’s rocket ( clip that force per unit area is maintained after dyer’s rocket is made. ) . Hold clip is necessary to let the dyer’s rocket nugget to solidify before let go ofing the welded parts, but it must non be to long as this may do the heat in the dyer’s rocket topographic point to distribute to the electrode and heat it. The electrode will so acquire more open to have on. Further, if the clasp clip is excessively long and the C content of the stuff is high ( more than 0.1 % ) , there is a hazard the dyer’s rocket will go brickle. [ 3 ]
5. Weld Current
The dyer’s rocket current is used during welding is being made. The sum of weld current is controlled by two things ; foremost, the scene of the transformer pat switch determines the maximal sum of weld current available ; back the per centum of current control determines the per centum of the available current to be used for doing the dyer’s rocket. Low per centum of current scenes is non usually recommended because it might impact the quality of the dyer’s rocket. Proper welding current can be obtained with the per centum current set between 70 and 90 per centum by seting the pat switch. The weld current should be kept every bit low as possible. When finding the current to be used, the current is bit by bit increased until weld splatter occurs between the metal sheets. This indicates that the right dyer’s rocket current has been reached. Weld current besides influences the value of nugget diameter. Different value of current, it will bring forth different dimension of the nugget diameter [ 3 ] .
Figure 10: Welding Cycle
The welding processes in opposition topographic point welding have 5 rhythm procedure as shown in the Figure 10. The first rhythm is the squeezing clip, where force per unit area from the electrode force is applied to the workpiece. The 2nd rhythm is weld clip, this procedure where the current is on and the welding current is applied in the metal sheets to run the sheet metal for the welding procedure. Then, postheat clip, the current hold at the low degree. The 4th rhythm is cool clip. This rhythm allow the thaw nugget diameter to solidify before the let go ofing the welded parts and in conclusion the off clip rhythm, the electrode force applied on the sheets metal is released the welding procedure is done.
2.3 Material belongingss
2.3.1 Introduction of Advanced High Strength Steel ( AHSS )
DP600 is one of the Advanced High Strength Steel ( AHSS ) for the automotive industry that have enhanced ductileness and formability [ 4 ] . DP600 normally used in the industry of rider auto and commercial vehicle wheels. It is to cut down weight and increasing service life and made of the typical belongingss of theese stuffs for upper limit used.
2.3.2 Basic Properties
220.127.116.11 Mechanical Properties
Table 4: mechanical belongingss for DP600 [ 4 ]
18.104.22.168 Chemical Composition
Table 5: Chemical Compostion for DP600 [ 4 ]
Table 6: Dimension for DP600 [ 4 ]
2.3.3 Advantages of High Strength Steel ( DP600 )
High strength steel ( DP600 ) are prodominantly used in automotive industries because of many advantages such as below [ 4 ] :
I. Low ratio of output strength to tensile stength.
II. Work-hardening capacity is high.
III. Good energy soaking up characteristic to supply clang public presentation in structural.
IV. Product stronger and safer under burden.
V. Good bake indurating responce that organizing the output strength in the formed countries is significantly increased.
3.0 Methodology of The Undertaking
Methodology really is a systematic survey of method and set of procedur. In this survey, there are consist of several stage. Figue 3 below shown a methodological analysis for this undertaking.
3.1 Detail of methodological analysis
3.1.1 Information Gathering
In information garnering all related information about topographic point welding, and stuff used was collected to supply futher understanding. All the related information is obtain from the cyberspace, diary, library and the other resources. It is of import Os nderstand the theory and old measure.
3.1.2 Design of experiment
Design of Experiment is an progress to better design public presentation which to cut down rhythm clip to developed procedures [ 5 ] . Design of experiment is a series of trial to alter the input variable ( parametric quantity ) to analyze and identififying the end product alteration in the end product response. Then analyze the consequence of procedure to happen the optimal value or parametric quantities that consequence to the procedure.
Figue 4 shown an illustration theoretical account of procedure that shown a figure of uncontrolled factor that are distinct, such as difference machine or operators and such as ambient temperature or humidness.
22.214.171.124 Screening Design and Full Factorial Design
Screening design is to place which factor and consequence that are of import. When have 2-4 factors and can execute a full factorial. Full factorial design in two degree. Full factorial design Iowa a common experimental design with all input factors set at two degrees each. These degrees is called i??highi?? and i??lowi?? or +1 and -1. A combination of all the input factors is called full factorial design in two degree [ 6 ] . If there are thousand factors at 2 degrees, full factorial design has 2? tallies.
Table 7: Number of run 2? Full Factorial
Number of Factors Number of Runs
Aim of factorial design as below:
1. To place factors with important effects on the response.
2. To place interations among factors.
3. To place which factors have the most importance effects on the response.
4. To make up one’s mind whether farther probe of a factori??s consequence is justified.
5. To look into the functional dependance of a response on multiple factors at the same time ( if and merely if you test many degrees of each factor ) .
126.96.36.199 Response Surface Methodology
Response surface Methodology ( RSM ) investigates relationships between explanatory variables and response variables. Objective of RSM is to utilize a sequence of designed experiments to obtain an optimum response. Below is illustration of RSM:
Figure 12: Response surface i??Peaki?? Figure 13: Response surface i??Hillsidei??
Figure 14: Response surface i??Rising ridgei?? Figure 15: Response surface i??saddlei??
188.8.131.52 Mathematical Method
The mathematical theoretical account correlating procedure parametric quantities and their interations with response parametric quantity will be developed harmonizing to the experimental consequence. These theoretical account will be used to foretell the size of dyer’s rocket zone which can better the welding quality and public presentation in Resistance Spot Welding.
The most common theoretical accounts fit to the experimental informations take either a additive equation. A additive theoretical account with two factors X1 and X2 such as below:
Y = i??0 + i??1X1 + i??2X2 + i??12X1X2 + experimental mistake
Yttrium is the response for given degrees of the chief consequence X1 and X2 and X1X2 is ncluded for possible interation consequence between X1 and x2. Constant i??0 is the response of Yttrium when both chief consequence are 0 [ 6 ] .
The progress of utilizing DOE is that can provides an attack organized which it possible to turn to both simple and slippery experimental job. The experiment is to choose appropriate aim, and so steer and execute a set of experiment. That can reason DOE can obtain more utile and more precise information about the surveies system. The joint influence of all factors is assessed [ 5 ]
3.1.3 Experiment procedure
The experiment is focused to acquire the radius of liquefied zone or dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) . The diameter of dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) is measured by gaining control the image of the speciment by the microscope. All the parametric quantity such as welding clip, the diameter of tips, weld current, and force will be varied in the experiment.
All the consequence with different parametric quantity will be record to look into nugget development focused on dyer’s rocket nugget and Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) .
The process for this experiment to fix the sample of specimen are:
a ) Film editing.
B ) Molding.
degree Celsius ) Grinding.
vitamin D ) Polishing.
vitamin E ) Etching.
degree Fahrenheit ) Invetigate weld nugget and HAZ size utilizing microscope.
After acquire the optimal consequence and the hardness and strength have be confirmation by tensile trial, hardness trial and flexing trial, the decision from this undertaking is verify and the undertaking is 100 % complete.
3.1.5 Thesis authorship
After acquire the decision, to finish this undertaking thesis authorship is needed to finish the undertaking. All the procedure and information from this undertaking from the start util the terminal is to be record and compile as a book.
1. US Patent 4456810, Adaptive Schedule Selective Weld Control, June 1984. “ The dyer’s rocket procedure is stopped… before the thaw exceeds the electrode diameter. Otherwise, an impressive but wholly unsought shower of flickers and hot metal will publish from the dyer’s rocket topographic point. ”
2. 1995-2012 CMW Iraqi National Congress.
3. Consequence of welding nugget diameter on the tensile strength of the opposition topographic point welding articulations of same sheets metal walther jenis Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University Malaysia Pahang may 2009.
5. A. Fauzi. Consequence of cutting parametric quantities on the hole diameter and surface raggedness for dry boring of aluminium Alloy 6061 2009.
6. Engineering Statistic Handbook 2009.
7. International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Studies 2009.
8. Optimization of froth filled spot-welded column for the crashworthiness 2010.