Shakespeare ‘s “ Othello ” conforms to a figure of Aristotle ‘s thoughts about calamity whilst ignoring others. Aristotle believed that in order to make a flood tide there must be a dramatic anticipation supplying a sense of impending day of reckoning. Calamities often centre on the tragic hero who has a defect that in due class leads to his ruin, this failing being defined as tragic flaw. This tragic defect is the consequence of the hubris, or in other words, utmost pride. Most significantly is the impression that the drama leaves the audience to see the statements in the drama, in consequence seting them in the supporter ‘s place ; Aristotle called this katharsis as the audience should see commiseration and fright in the procedure. His rule about the scene and timing of the play is that it has to take topographic point in 24 hours in one location with no subplots and no loose terminals, known as the integrities. Shakespeare employs Aristotle ‘s thoughts but in an altered manner, although these thoughts and fit the dramatic intent good making an absorbing drama.
Another dramatic anticipation is used by Shakespeare in Act 1 Scene 3. The anticipation involves Brabantio warning Othello of his girl “ Look to her, Moor, if thou hast eyes to see. / She has deceived her male parent and may thee. ” This anticipation once more is dry because subsequently in the drama Othello does believe Desdemona to be untrusty which shows how Shakespeare uses dramatic anticipation to make the air of impending day of reckoning in early phases of the drama. However, Othello ‘s response “ My life upon her religion! ” creates an impact dramatically due to the certainty of this statement. The frequence of dramatic anticipations is emphatic because of the sheer length of the physique up to the tragic flaw which allows Shakespeare to concentrate on other beliefs Aristotle had on tradegy, in this instance hubris.
It is apparent that Othello has a much idealised position of himself and this hubris finally leads to Othello ‘s ruin. However, it is established early in the drama in Act 1 Scene 3 “ My parts, my rubric, my perfect psyche ” . By making so Shakespeare sets the foundation for greater dramatic impact later in the drama in Act 5 Scene 2 “ Wash me in steep-down gulfs of liquid fire! ” which is in blunt contrast to the assurance shown early in the drama. Othello ‘s attitude to jealousy could be considered hubristic as he claims in Act 3 Scene3 “ I ‘ll see before I doubt ; when I doubt, prove ; / … Away at one time with love or green-eyed monster! ” seting himself in an elevated place believing that he would be rational when confronted with green-eyed monster. Giving Othello inordinate pride Shakespeare can make a greater tragic flaw therefore staying by Aristotle ‘s positions.
Furthermore, Aristotle ‘s attack to calamity was the construct of the supporter holding a fatal defect described as tragic flaw. Othello ‘s fatal defect is jealousy and to a certain extent, naivete. His trustful nature would be considered a virtuousness, nevertheless, when he comes into contact with Iago, his virtuousness becomes unfastened for development. In Act 1 Scene 3 the foundations of this trust are clearly seen as Othello describes Iago as “ A adult male… of honestness and trust ” which shows early marks that link closely with the sense of impending day of reckoning. Othello ‘s naivete can besides be seen in the early phases of the drama in Act 1 Scene 3 “ I will your serious and great concern scant ” believing naively that Desdemona will non deflect him. Yet, this is in blunt contrast to the terminal of the drama which makes his fatal defect far more credible as you can see the crunching down of his character in Act 5 Scene 2 “ O, sap, sap, sap! ” with the repeat functioning to underscore the convulsion he is in. This demonstrates how Shakespeare uses more than one of Aristotle thoughts, combined once more to assist convey the air of impending day of reckoning, magnifying the tragic flaw therefore giving the calamity more dramatic impact.
The effects of Shakespeare ‘s usage of Aristotle ‘s thoughts are clearly apparent making a calamity that leaves the audience to chew over in some depth the statements of the drama. The statements presented autumn into Aristotle ‘s theory on calamity, katharsis, which Shakespeare induces in “ Othello ” . Pity would be experienced by the audience because one time Emilia in Act 5 Scene 2 Tells Othello what he has done “ For 1000 hast killed the sweetest innocent/ That e’er did raise up oculus. ” And the devastation he has caused “ Blow me about in the air currents! Roast me in sulfur! ” he has condemned himself to hell which shows that the effects of tragic flaw have taken their toll on him. This combined with Othello ‘s last address “ Speak of one that loved non sagely, but excessively good, of one non easy covetous but, being wrought, perplexed in an extreme… . ” induces the commiseration because Othello has realised his defect go forthing the audience sadder and possibly more wiser, something Aristotle would hold approved of.
Fear is another facet of Catharsis which is present in “ Othello ” . The fright stems from Othello ‘s ability to be manipulated and the devastation that consequences. In act 3 scene 3 “ I ‘ll see before I doubt ; when I doubt, prove ; / … Away at one time with love or green-eyed monster! ” the katharsis can be seen to be strongly linked with the hubris because Othello is so certain of himself, reinforced by the exclaiming grade, which is in blunt contrast with the destructive violent death of Desdemona. Yet the ruin of his character provokes fright of how he was manipulated, go forthing the audience to believe that it could go on to them. Shakespeare exasperates this fright by demoing Iago ‘s use of Roderigo which can be seen every bit early as Act 1 Scene 1 and establishes Iago ‘s character supplying a intimation of what is to come.
Yet Shakespeare disregards some facets of Greek theory affecting the scene and the timing by leting the drama to take topographic point in different locations. It begins in Venice and so transportations to Cyprus, being carried out over several old ages. By making this in “ Othello ” Shakspere can construct up to the flood tide of the drama, therefore making greater deepness to the narrative and characters. Having no sub secret plans allows the audience to concentrate on the chief secret plan which is why Shakespeare has the bulk of the duologue between Othello and Iago.
However, some thoughts Shakespeare abides by are carried out to ill consequence, “ Gratiano, maintain the house/ And prehend upon the lucks of the Moor ” This binding up of all loose terminals bestows the feeling that it has been forced, as if Shakespeare intentionally tried to utilize Aristotle ‘s thoughts about calamity. However, the binding up of all loose terminals does n’t happen in the instance of Iago who refuses to acknowledge to his nefarious Acts of the Apostless “ Demand me nil… ” which is a unfavorable judgment Dr Johnson has of Shakespeare “ composing without a moral intent ” . The refusal to go through opinion in conventional moral is something Aristotle would n’t hold done, underscoring that the integrities are distorted in “ Othello ” . Nevertheless, the monosyllabic words Iago uses decrease the rhythmic involvement in the line “ From this clip Forth I will ne’er talk a word ” showing that he perchance knows what he has done was wicked.
Shakespeare uses Aristotle ‘s thoughts as a format until it does n’t turn out every bit utile to his intent or his purpose for his characters and the dramas outcome. Most notably the integrities are non followed by Shakespeare because by making so he can continually make dramatic tenseness to escalate the tragic flaw of the drama. Likewise, the change of Aristotle ‘s position on the integrities means that the hubris of Othello can be more established. This affects the audience ‘s feelings about the drama doing the katharsis have a greater impact.