Today, energy challenge turned out to be a sedate menace to sustainable development in developing states since their energy demands is increasing more rapidly than advanced states. On the other side, fossil fuel burning can non keep longer in the foreseeable hereafter because of the environmental impact and the decrease of resources. Malaysia is sing dramatic growing of population and the economic system and need to seek for options energy beginnings in support of its dwellers and concern energy demands. Fourth-largest energy beginning in the universe is biomass and was rich in the states.
Malaysia blessed with the tropical woods and damp clime all the twelvemonth unit of ammunition which is a fantastic chance for full development of agricultural and tropical rain woods possible. Term of waste-to-wealth has been started at the terminal of 1990, and it has become common. This thought is based on unwanted waste that is converted into utile energy while minimising waste coevals and to increase the economic-impact used chiefly for cookery, for warming and electricity. Soon, coordinated efforts and different biomass energy programs are persuaded by the authorities for growing, commercialisation and presentation.
We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!
This survey ‘s intent to this present province and positions of the biomass usage and scheme promoted to the hereafter development of Malaysia.
— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –
Malaysia covers a land mass of 329,847 square kilometres which consist of two parts ; Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo which are separated by the South China Sea [ 1 ] . With its population growing of 1.7 % – 1.6 % per annum [ 2 ] , Malaysia is heading to its authorities ‘s vision to go a “ humanist industrialised state by twelvemonth 2020 ” and with such ambitious vision, the growing of Science and Technology is continuously developing therefore lending to increase demand of energy [ 3 ] .
Malaysia relies on non-renewable energy and is presently embarking into renewable energy. There are a figure of identified renewable energy beginnings ; for illustration solar power, hydro power, oil thenar biomass and waste stuffs [ 4 ] which are being used and farther surveies are being conducted to better its quality and public presentation.
The use of renewable energy has contributed to cut down pollutions to the environment, cost salvaging – cheaper beginning of energy [ 5 ] , and does non cut down the natural beginnings [ 6 ] .
As a underdeveloped state, Malaysia ‘s population continues to turn and populate progressively energy dependent lives the hereafter of energy supply is turning. This paper is revised the present potencies of energy resources particularly biomass and so the hereafter parts to the national energy coevals in Malaysia.
Energy crisis is going a serious menace to sustainability chiefly in developing states and communities of the last decennaries. Between 1990 and 2000, the Asia Pacific ‘s developing states met 27 % addition in conventional energy ingestion whereas the ingestion of universe energy was 11 % [ 7 ] . Turning in the energy demand is predicted to go on in the hereafter. Fossil fuels have been the chief beginning of energy since first flickers of engineering appeared in world lives, nevertheless, depletion of dodo fuel militias every bit good as important environmental impacts, leads the authoritiess and governments to concentrate on renewable energy resources. In most recent old ages, demand for petroleum-derived fuels is increasing as a consequence of grow in population and economic system [ 8 ] .
The modern-day Malayan economic system is a net energy exporter with 11 % of export income in 2004 derived from rough oil, LNG and crude oil merchandises [ 9 ] . The concluding energy demand of Malaysia is expected to turn at 2.9 % per twelvemonth, making 69.39A MTOE[ 1 ]A in 2020, about double the 2002 degree. The industry sector will hold the highest growing rate of energy demand at 3.38 % , followed by conveyance at 2.74 % , residential at 1.86 % and commercial at 1.14 % , as shown in Fig.1 [ 10 ] .
Fig.1.A Predictions of Malaysian energy demand by sector ( 1980-2020 ) A [ 11 ]
Energy place in Malaya
Malaysia produces and utilizes both conventional and renewable beginnings of energy. The largest conventional energy resource found in Malaysia is crude oil ( i.e. oil and gas ) . Harmonizing to the Oil & A ; Gas Journal ( OGJ ) , Malaysia held proved oil militias of 4 billion barrels as of January 2010, and its oil militias are reported to be the 3rd highest in the Asia-Pacific part. Malaysia was the universe ‘s 10th largest holder of natural gas militias in 2010 and the 2nd largest exporter of liquified natural gas after Qatar in 2009. OGJ provinces that Malaysia held 83 trillion three-dimensional pess ( Tcf ) of proved natural gas militias as of January 2010. Char sedimentations can besides be found in Malaysia. However, merely a little per centum is being mined [ 12 ] .
Malaysia is a important oil and natural gas manufacturer and is strategically located amid of import paths for the seaborne energy trade.A Malaysia ‘s oil militias are the 3rd highest in the Asia-Pacific part after China and India.
Fig.2. The electric power generated by different sectors in Malaysia ( in 2009 ) ( Beginning: trading economic sciences ) [ 13 ]
It is apparent that Malaysia is still really much dependant on fossil fuels in all its commercial energy demand and electricity coevals ( Table 2 ) .A
Table2.A Percentage of electricity coevals based on fuel types [ 14 ]
Coal ( % )
Petroleum ( % )
Gas ( % )
Hydro ( % )
The most of import beginnings supplies were rough oil and crude oil merchandises and so followed by the natural gas. It can be stated that the entire supply of energy is increased bit by bit from 1978 to 2013 ( Fig.3 ) . In 2013, the per centum of petroleum oil and crude oil merchandises falling to under 10 % but the per centum of natural gas is go uping to merely over 62 % . Although rough oil and crude oil had contributed the largest per centum of entire sum supply, an addition in the use of coal and coke had reduced the one-year growing rate of oil supply. The part of the other beginnings whereas had remained the same.
The cost effectual, quality, dependability, and security supply demand to be considered to bring forth optimum energy mix from domestic beginnings. The international market monetary value of rough oil is projected to stay high so that alternate attacks need to be make to cut down the dependence on crude oil merchandises.
Fig.3. Fuel mix tendency in power coevals in Malaysia [ 15 ]
Renewable energy resources
The most of import beginnings of renewable energy in Malaysia are biomass and solar and sustainable usage of energy has been emphasized in the state ‘s development programs and supported by Government enterprises. Under the tenth Malaysia Plan, the Government will be presenting the feed-in duty ( FiT ) of 1 % to be incorporated into the electricity duties of consumers to back up the development of renewable energy ( Fig.4 ) .
& lt ; 1 %
% of entire electricity generated
Planned addition in renewable energy capacity
Fig.4. Traveling towards renewable energy replaces the demand for fossil-fuel power workss [ 16 ]
The RE sector is fast deriving land as a new growing country for many states with the possible it presents environmentally and economically. It plays a major function in run intoing energy demands, doing it possible for concerns to harvest energy cost nest eggs while battling planetary heating. Currently, Malaysia is universe the 3rd largest manufacturer of solar cells after China and Germany ( Fig.5 ) . Malaysia already has companies across the full value concatenation, from silicon production to solar cell fabrication and faculty assembly.
With the committed sum of fund for the turn overing out of the first FiT inducement for 2012 – 2014, Malaysia is on the right way to accomplish a targeted gross of at least RM70 billion from the private sector by 2020.
Fig.5. Predicted solar fabrication from 2006 to 2020 by different parts [ 17 ]
Predicted to be a clean energy of the hereafter, solar energy has been at the head of power development in the developed states and a possible beginning of energy for developing states similar to Malaysia. This paper introduces Malaysia ‘s solar energy or solar photovoltaic development chances. The survey was carried out by first seeking in the state ‘s energy policy linked to solar power. Key participants in solar power development as authorities organisations are presented. Initial solar energy plans and cardinal undertakings entitled Malaysia Building Integrated Photovoltaic ( MBIPV ) and the successful enterprises will be submitted. Measures that adopted by the authorities of Malaysia include appealing inducements to advance solar photovoltaic development, solar energy potencies of the state, foreign investing and the future way and the feed-in duty program will be submitted with a length provide a broad scope of solar power development in Malaysia. The chances were positive and the state was actively advancing solar as alternate energy beginnings and aware of the benefits it conveying for economic system development in future [ 18 ] .
Hydropower is the lone renewable energy engineering that is soon commercially feasible on a big graduated table. It has four major advantages, viz. it is renewable, it produces negligible sums of nursery gases, it is the least dearly-won manner of hive awaying big sums of electricity, and it can easy set the sum of electricity produced to the sum demanded by consumers.
Hydropower histories for approximately 17 % of planetary coevals capacity and about 20 % of the energy produced each twelvemonth [ 19 ] .
Malaysia has a entire land mass of 332,000 km2 and its average lift is about 300m. The mean rainfall is somewhat more than 2,600mm per twelvemonth. The entire gross hydro potency is 414,000 GWh/year, of which about 85,000 GWh/year is available in Peninsular Malaysia. Hence, whilst Peninsular Malaysia has 39 % of the land country, its portion of hydropower resources is merely somewhat more than 20 % [ 20 ] .
Tenaga Nasional Berhad operates three hydroelectric strategies in the peninsular with an installed generating capacity of 1,911 megawatts ( MW ) . They are the Sungai Perak ( 1249 MW ) , Terengganu ( 400 MW ) and Cameron Highlands ( 262 MW ) hydroelectric strategies with 21 dikes in operation. A figure of Independent Power Producers besides own and operate several little hydro workss. At present, hydro power is the lone renewable energy beginning in Malaysia that is considered to be economically feasible on a big graduated table.
As for future hydro development in Peninsular Malaysia, several undertakings have been identified and studied at feasibleness and pre-feasibility degrees. These possible undertakings have to vie with alternate energy beginnings such as coal and gas in footings of economic viability.
The potency for air current energy coevals in Malaysia depend on the handiness of air current resource that varies with location. Understanding the site specific nature of air current is a important measure in be aftering air current energy undertaking. Detailed cognition of air current on site is needed to gauge the public presentation of air current energy undertaking. Average air current velocities are low in Malaysia and tackling air current energy is merely practical on distant islands or east seashore provinces of peninsular Malaysia where the air current may make 30 knots or more during periods of strong rushs of cold air from the North. 30 knots is tantamount to about 15.4 m/s, which is about 55 kilometers per hour. However, application of air current energy at Malaysia can be used widely if the turbine can run in state norm wind velocity which is 3-5 m/s. There was some survey [ 21 ] done successfully to bring forth the electricity that suited with wind status of Malaysia, classified as low wind velocity air current turbine.
The northwest seashore of Sabah and Sarawak part besides possible to application of air current energy due to strength air current that reach 20 knot or more [ 22 ] . Due to maximal air current can be obtained during monsoon season which is between Octobers to March, the intercrossed system of air current energy is executable to congratulate electricity supply during monsoon season. The first air current farm in Malaysia was set up on Terumbu Layang-Layang Island, Sabah. A Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia survey in 2005 has shown that the usage of 150 kilowatts turbine on the island has shown a good grade of success [ 23 ] . This survey mentioned that Terumbu Layang-Layang Island has the largest air current energy possible compared to other topographic points in Malaysia.
Tidal energy is besides assuring renewable energy beginning available in Malaysia. Until late, a preliminary survey was carried out to research the potency of ocean energy for electricity coevals in Malaysia [ 24 ] . Study by Ref. [ 25 ] , identified that Pulau Jambangan, Kota Belud and Sibu are the locations with great potency for tidal energy extraction. The entire sum of electricity that can be generated on those locations is about 14.5 GWh/year.
Presents, biomass is regarded as one of the primary beginnings of energy in the development and developed states. Malaya with a big measure of biomass waste as a beginning of power coevals is considered as one of the possible states in this country [ 26 ] .
Oil thenar is one of the chief economic workss in the big figure of states. Malaysia entirely generates about 47 % of the planetary palm-oil supplies and can be regarded as the universe ‘s prima maker and exporter of oil thenar. Malaysia besides produces great measures the oil thenar biomass as oil coconut stems, oil thenar leaves, clean merchandise packages, shells and fibers as waste from palm-oil merchandise harvest home and oil extraction intervention. At now there is a invariably turning involvement in the usage the oil thenar biomass of the beginning of cleaner energy. One of the chief involvements is hydrogen fuel from oil thenar biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is clean and effectual beginning of energy and is expected to do a major function in the hereafter energy demands because of the natural stuff handiness [ 27 ] . There are different types of thermo-chemical processing to change over the oil thenar biomass to hydrogen affluent gasoline.
Fig. 6 shows the cultivated country for oil thenar in Malaysia ( divided into three classs, i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak ) within 34 old ages. The entire oil thenar planted country in the state increased by 4.5 % to 4.69 million hour angle in 2009 [ 28 ] . In Sabah and Sarawak, the drastic addition in the 1990s can be attributed to the authorities policy in the intensification of palm oil industries in East Malaysia [ 29 ] . Malaysia produces about 15 million metric metric tons of palm oil per twelvemonth. One metric ton produces about 414 kilograms of biodiesel. With a thermal value of about 40,000 kJ/kg, this consequences in a entire energy supply of about 7.8 GW/year from palm oil.
Cultivated countries for oil thenar in Malaysia.jpg
Fig.6.A Cultivated countries for oil thenar in Malaysia, 1975-2009 [ 22 ]
While the entire energy available from residues and landfill gas has been estimated as 3.1 GW [ 30 ] . Major agribusiness harvest in Malaysia are oil thenar ( 43.67 % ) , gum elastic ( 30.56 % ) , rice ( 12.68 % ) ,
chocolate ( 6.75 % ) and coconut ( 6.34 % ) . These provide Malaysia immense of biomass resources. In fact, authorities of Malaysia has announced the 5th Fuel Policy that states “ To supplement the conventional supply of energy, new beginnings such as renewable energy will be encouraged and biomass resources such as oil thenar and wood waste every bit good as rice chaffs, will be used on a broad footing chiefly for electricity coevals ” [ 31 ] . Currently, residue from agribusiness harvests like Paddy, gum elastic and sugar are use as fuel for coevals of electricity in Malaysia utilizing the cogeneration system. However, the per centum of utilizing this residue for electricity coevals is still low. Biomass residues are the chief beginning of energy input to the Millss utilizing cogeneration system. It has been estimated the entire biomass energy potency is tantamount to 2-3 % of entire power production in the state [ 32 ] . Report from [ 33 ] , approximately 14 Millss already used agribusiness waste for energy demand, both for steam and electricity with entire capacity sum 1567.2 MW. The increasing sum of paddy production make extremely possible in CHP engineering to change over the paddy chaff residue for energy intent.
Around 20 % of Paddy is husk, rice chaff in bend contains 16-22 % ash, and 90-96 % of the ash is composed of silicon oxide ( silicon dioxide, SiO2 ) . Harmonizing to [ 34 ] , by 2020 Malaysia will bring forth 768,290 metric tons of rice chaff. As refer to [ 35 ] , 1.5 kilogram of rice chaff can bring forth 1 kWh, this mean by 2020 Malaysia can bring forth 512 TWh utilizing rice chaff residue. Some illustration of cogeneration undertaking based on rice chaff installed in Pendang Kedah Darulaman, which uses a steam boiler, 6.5 tonnes/h, 30 saloon, saturated, connected to a 450 kilowatt back force per unit area turbine and heat money changer [ 36 ] . Electricity produces usage for their owned ingestion. Other illustration of rice chaff undertaking cogeneration that connected to system grid is installed at Titi Serong Rice Mill [ 37 ] .
In Malaysia, the one-year production of sugar cane bagasse reaches a figure of million metric tons [ 38 ] . About 30 % of that figure will turn into bagasse when it is crushed in a sugar mill [ 39 ] . Sugarcane baggase is the hempen waste that remains after recovery of sugar juice via suppression and extraction. A ton of bagasse ( 50 % mill-wet footing ) is equal to 1.6 barrels of fuel oil on energy footing. The sum of sugar cane energy content on dry footing, excepting ash ( around 2-3 % of weight ) can be divided into three chief parts. Malaysia produces 274,620 metric tons of sugar cane for 2009, with a wet content of 50 % . This means we can acquire 150,000 metric tons of dry bagasse yearly.
The thermal value for dry bagasse comes to be 17.33 MJ/kg, which make to number energy potency of 0.421 million boe per twelvemonth. At the clip, all the bagasse is being used as boiler fuels in sugar Millss runing in the state. Most agriculture harvests in Malaysia can be used to bring forth electricity. If all harvests are to the full utilize can assist cut down the dependence on fossil fuel beginnings.
Biomass could be Remarkable as a stable and suited replacing for fossil energy in Malaysia that screen appropriates 76 % of land by thick and compact sort of tropical agricultural and forest.
Presently, high motive of biomass ingestion in order to bring forth energy, sustainability of bio-sources, economic impact and environmental facets are considered. Therefore, bettering engineerings related to bio-power and bio-fuel is continued. Recycling and utilizing residues of wood and agribusiness are valued in order to change over to utile energy and by merchandise. Establishing biomass undertakings such as CDM by Malayan Government is outstanding in order to apportion subsidy to this sort of undertakings.
Allocated subsidy is one common manner of support biomass undertaking. However, still there are many obstructions such as, cognition development of biomass in Malaysia, hazardous state of affairs for using new engineering, cost-benefit with fiscal indexs in comparing with conventional energy, energy demand in market topographic point, velocity of commercialisation, feasibleness of cognition transferring, and the policies of authorities still are non successful to carry and promote industries to utilize biomass and efficient communicating and dialogue with suited scheme including integrating, alliance and equilibrating state of affairs between authorities and industries concern based on win-win is considered.
Mentality of utilizing biomass depends on the entire cost of bring forthing biomass energy in compared with fossil fuels. Using biomass alternatively of fossil energy with the diminishing cost of biomass is accomplishable and it can esteem to environment.