Tomorrow When the War Began

Tomorrow When the War Began is a novel written by John Marsden and is a story about seven teenagers who go camping in a place called Hell (Taylor’s Stitch) When they return they realise that their pets have died, their town has been invaded, their parents were prisoners and their lives were in danger. The seven friends stick together, fight for their lives and the lives of their loved ones and create a resistance group. This essay will talk about the lessons the characters of Ellie, Fi and their friends learn at the end of tomorrow when the war began.

It will talk about their strengths and weaknesses throughout their journey of war. The novel shows that Ellie’s bravery is valuable because it demonstrates how much we can change when we or our loved ones are in danger. Ellie’s brave actions reveal that in situations of danger we too could discover strengths that we never knew we had and change into a stronger more heroic person for it. “I felt then and still feel now that I was transformed by those four steps…I was now a force to be reckoned with” (pg. 81- 82).

Ellie says of her dramatic transformation from average schoolgirl to brave heroine. Ellie’s transformation at that moment of danger is a valuable lesson to us all that we too can become heroes and heroines in situations of danger, finding unknown strengths and bravery in order to save our lives and the lives of our loved ones. The two characters that show the most courage in the novel are Ellie and Fiona. Ellie realised what true courage was when she had to take significant risks. Ellie didn’t know if she would have the courage to go into the show grounds. I felt then, and still feel now, that I was transformed by those four steps. At that moment I stopped being an innocent rural teenager and started becoming someone else, a more complicated and capable person. A force to be reckoned with. “(pg. 81-82). Fiona compared to everyone was the most frightened teenager. Ellie was not comfortable being teamed with Fiona for the attack on the bridge. Ellie never thought Fiona was courageous but Fiona showed her that she was courageous by leading the tanker to the bridge. I was a bit nervous being paired with Fi. (pg. 255). The seven characters in the novel “tomorrow when the war began’ discovered their strengths and weaknesses by going through hard times throughout the invasion. The characters life changed a lot throughout the war, before the invasion they were just normal teenagers but after, they were forced to turn into a more mature adults. This essay has now discussed Ellie’s sudden unknown bravery and the courage Fi and Ellie showed throughout the hard times in the novel.

Price Ceiling

A price ceiling is a government-imposed limit on the price charged for a product. Governments intend price ceilings to protect consumers from conditions that could make necessary commodities unattainable. However, a price ceiling can cause problems if imposed for a long period without controlled rationing. Price ceilings can produce negative results when the correct solution would have been to increase supply. Misuse occurs when a government misdiagnoses a price as too high when the real problem is that the supply is too low.

In an unregulated market economy price ceilings do not exist. Students may incorrectly perceive a price ceiling as being on top of a supply and demand curve when in fact; an effective price ceiling is positioned below the equilibrium position on the graph. Effects of Price Ceilings Binding Versus Non-Binding price ceilings A price ceiling can be set above or below the free-market equilibrium price. For a price ceiling to be effective, it must differ from the free market price. In the graph at right, the supply and demand curves intersect to determine the free-market quantity and price.

The dashed line represents a price ceiling set above the free-market price, called a non-binding price ceiling. In this case, the ceiling has no practical effect. The government has mandated a maximum price, but the market price is established well below that. In contrast, the solid green line is a price ceiling set below the free market price, called a binding price ceiling. In this case, the price ceiling has a measurable impact on the market. Consequences of Binding Price Ceilings A price ceiling set below the free-market price has several effects.

Suppliers find they can’t charge what they had been. As a result, some suppliers drop out of the market. This reduces supply. Meanwhile, consumers find they can now buy the product for less, so quantity demanded increases. These two actions cause quantity demanded to exceed quantity supplied, which causes a shortage—unless rationing or other consumption controls are enforced. It can also lead to various forms of non-price competition so supply can meet demand. Reduction in quality To supply demand at the legal price, the most obvious approach is to lower costs.

However, in most cases, lower costs mean lower quality. During World War II, for example, food sellers operating under ceilings reduced portion size and used less expensive ingredients (e. g. , more fat, flour, etc. ). It can also be seen in decreased maintenance of rent controlled apartments. Some scholars, however, doubt that price ceilings necessarily drive quality down in the case of an oligopoly. They argued that with few competing firms selling under a price ceiling, a company at the lower end of the market must find ways to achieve better quality without raising price.

Black markets If somebody cannot obtain needed goods because a price ceiling reduces the quantity, they may turn to the black market. Those who—by luck or good management—obtain goods in short supply can profit by illegally selling at a higher price than the free market allows. The black market price is higher than the free market price because the quantity is less than in a free market transaction, where more sellers could afford to sell the product. People are sometimes forced to buy at these higher prices when a shortage happens and there is no other place to obtain these.

Evaluation of Usaid Training Programs in Jordan

Abstract: Training is vitally important for developing the youth skills and abilities. Most countries and organizations, the world over, are keenly involved in providing training programs for the youth. However, the increasing demand on training programs and the rising cost of these programs made it obligatory for many countries to seek partnership agreements between governments and training agencies.

USAID is one of the leading funding, non-profit organizations that provide financial support for training programs in many countries of the world. Jordan is one of the countries that has been receiving financial aid through USAID for several years. The current study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan that have been funded through USAID.

For more accurate results and to limit the scope of this study, focus will be on one vital project that is funded by USAID and that is targeted towards developing and upgrading the skills of Jordanian youth. This program is MAHARAT. MAHARAT is a partnership project between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC). This study will attempt to find out the effectiveness of this program by analyzing the program outcomes in comparison with the program stated objectives.

The researcher will study all the variables that might be related to the program effectiveness: analyzing the program design through finding out the balance between the training needs and the program content, studying the appropriateness of the program organization in relation to its internal design and the effective execution of the program, and analyzing the effect of the external, social factors on the overall effectiveness of the training program; these factors include the trainees’ age, education and the type of training program they have undergone.

In order to obtain data, the researcher will develop a special questionnaire that will be refereed by two specialists in the field. Data collected will then be analyzed using SPSS. Introduction: Training is receiving utmost attention by these days by most countries. It is commonly believed that the skills and expertise acquired through training are very essential for development and productivity. This has led several countries to consider training as a major component of their Human Resource buildup.

Recent changes and developments in science, technology and communication have made it even more demanding for all countries to place more attention on employee training and on increasing work effectiveness and productivity. Hence, investment in humans’ development is now considered an investment for the development of the country in general. It is now believed that skillful workers and employees mean more productivity, better outcome quality and less expenditure.

For these reasons and more, Jordan is actively involved in creating successful, purposeful and effective training programs. One of such programs that came as a direct partnership between USAID and The Business Development Center(BDC) is called MAHARAT (Skills). This program aims at equipping fresh university graduates with the appropriate skills that enable them to fuse peacefully within the workforce or the market place. Focus through the training sessions is concentrated at communication skills, leadership abilities and other managerial techniques.

It also provides trainees with actual in-field training that aims at acquainting the participants with real life experience. This research shall attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of this training program in Jordan. The Study Problem: MAHARAT is one training program that is currently receiving a great deal of attention in Jordan. It is specially designed to help university graduates acquire the proper skills needed so that the can effectively join the market place. Money, time and effort are invested in this program in abundance.

However, the researcher feels that it is time some special effort is exerted in order to evaluate the effectiveness of this program. Therefore, this study is undertaken as an evaluative procedure to particularly answer the following question: What degree of effectiveness does MAHARAT enjoy in the eyes’ of the Trainees ? The Study Objectives: The study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of MAHARAT. This major objective might be achieved through the following minor objectives: 1- Evaluating the degree of harmony between the trainees’ needs and the program design (content). – Evaluating the degree of appropriateness between the program design and the executing procedures such as, the program consecutive cycles, the program duration, the program time allocation, the program pace and the number of trainees. 3- Evaluating the efficiency of the program deployment: the trainers’ skills, the instructional aids, handouts and the learning environment. 4- Finding out whether there are any statistical differences at the level of ?? 0. 5 that can be related to social and demographic factors such as the trainee’s gender, university, and major. The Importance of the study: Training plays an essential role in developing human resources; Simultaneously, training is costly and time consuming. USAID is currently involved in funding and supporting several training and development programs in Jordan. Therefore, it seems important at this stage to undertake a research effort to evaluate the effectiveness of these training investments.

The researcher shall make use of the most updated theoretical research available and shall try to use this theoretical background in building and designing a special questionnaire for this study and in analyzing the collected data. The researcher hopes that this study will shed more light on the effectiveness of the training programs in Jordan through a thorough analysis of MAHARAT as a case study. The rarity of studies in this domain gives more value and importance to the current study. It is anticipated that the study results will be of a special value to decision makers and training organizations in planning future training endeavors.

Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and What’s It Like to Be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith

Running Heading: Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas and what it’s like to be a black girl. Patrice Moody ENG 125 Introductions to Literature Instructor: Duvan Arsola 08/09/2011 Comparison Paper of Child of the Americas by Aurora Levin Morales and what’s it like to be a Black Girl by Patricia Smith The literary works I will compare are “Child of the Americas” by Aurora Levin Morales and “What’s It like to be a Black Girl” by Patricia Smith.

The works focus on the psyche of two women of African descent, plagued by the historical American public perceptions of their culture. These negative perceptions play an important part of the individual’s psyche due to prejudice. It has misconstrued and distorted the minds of these young African American girls. These poems show how two young girls from different American minority sub-cultures, view themselves in totally different perspectives. One of the young women wishes to identify with the culture and image of her African American ancestor’s slave owners; however the other wishes to embrace and celebrate her African Latino heritage.

The poem, “What’s it like to be a Black Girl”, is a look into the mind of a black girl in a society that is fueled with racism and discrimination, both of race and gender. This person is transitioning from a young black girl into young black women and trying to accept her changing body. She has been taught to be ashamed of who she is, what she looks like, and where she comes from. She wants her features to look like those who are accepted in society. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like you’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. (Smith, 4) What the poem is saying in this passage is this girl sees her body changing right in front of her eyes but she also sees herself as society sees her. She has been taught that what she looks like is wrong. When she says her edges are wild, she is talking about the changes her body is experiencing. The growth of her breasts and the area below that is starting to arouse her. She feels uncomfortable in her own skin. The society in which she lives is not willing to accept and embrace the person’s color.

Poetry Explication An explanation in its purest form of “What it’s like to be a Black Girl (for those of you who aren’t)” by Patricia Smith, is just that, an explanation. From the first three syllables “First of all,” the author gives a sense of a story being told. She uses jagged sentence structure and strong forceful language to also show the reader the seriousness of her topic. Smiths poem gives the audience an insider’s view into a young black girl’s transition into black woman-hood at a time where both being a black girl and a black woman was not as Welch.

Puberty is usually defined by the biological changes a young boy or girl’s body undertakes around the age of 9 up until about 14. “It’s being 9 years old and feeling like You’re not finished,” writes Smith, “like your edges are wild, like there’s something, everything, wrong. ” (Smith, 4) These thoughts have run around the minds of almost every puberty stricken youngster. However, Smiths subject seems to also have the added pressures of a racially jagged society. This “black girl” she refers to in her poem is feeling the awkwardness of her newly changing body and the hope of something different and maybe better to come.

The poem tells the story of a young black girl exploring and experiencing what it is to become a black woman in her changing social circle. “It’s dropping food coloring in your eyes to make them blue and suffering their burn in silence. It’s popping a bleached white mop head over the kinks of your hair and primping in front of the mirrors that deny your reflection. ” (Smith, 9) The food coloring in her eyes, and the bleaching of her hair can only symbolize her need to grow into the more “accepted” form of society, the white skinned, blue eyed, blonde haired men and women of the 1950’s.

Where for her, “it’s flame and fists and life according to Motown” (Smith, 17) meaning the sights and sounds of racial slurs and fighting, along with the rhythmic blues of Motown music. Just the transition of going from a girl to a woman is hard enough, without the added pressures of being accepted due to your hair, color of skin, and taste in music. Between “jumping double Dutch until your legs pop” and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the author also tells us how a young black girl tries to balance her newly formed body, with her still child-like mentality.

Part of every young girl’s passage into woman hood includes a great white gown, which she wears on her wedding day. On that day, when she’s joined with a man, a chapter ends and a new one begins. Smith writes about “having a man reach out for you and caving in around his fingers” which gives the reader and inside look at the submissive mentality women were faced with during that era. Finally, this young black girl is now a woman. Throughout the poem the author has helped us to understand the transition from black girl to black woman.

With Smiths’ attention to detail, “feeling like you’re not finished” (Smith, 2) and “growing tall and wearing a lot of white” (Smith, 14) the reader is able to follow the incredible changes, both biological and psychological. How did young black women feel toward the mid-1960? What sort of things did young girls think about during that period of change and progression? These, among others, are just some of the answered Smith explained in her poem. The explication or story is simply this: A young black girl’s exploration and experiences while becoming a grown black woman in an era of racial uncertainty

Tips on Writing a Reflection Paper

A reflection paper can be written on an assigned piece of reading, a lecture or an experience, such as an internship or volunteer experience. A reflection paper probably will be further clarified by the teacher or professor who assigns it to you. However, for the most part, a reflection paper cites your reactions, feelings and analysis of an experience in a more personal way than in a formal research or analytical essay. Thoughts and Reactions When writing a reflection paper on literature or another experience, the point is to include your thoughts and reactions to the reading or experience.

You can present your feelings on what you read and explain them. You also can use a reflection paper to analyze what you have read. Like any other paper or essay, it should be cohesive and refer directly to the specific passage or quote in the material that inspired this feeling. You can include personal experience in a reflection paper, but do not depend on it; base your reactions and reflections on the material that is your subject. Don’t Summarize Do not use a reflection paper simply to summarize what you have read or done.

Also, a reflection paper should not be a free flow of ideas and thoughts. The idea of a reflection paper is to write an essay describing your reactions and analysis to a reading or other experience; however, it is more formal than a journal entry, so leave out informal language and form. Organize Your Thoughts A reflection paper should be as organized as any other type of formal essay. Include an introduction, perhaps one that describes your expectations before the reading or the experience.

You also may want to summarize the conclusions you came to during the process. The body of your paper should explain the conclusions you have come to and why, basing your conclusions in concrete details from your reading and experience. End the paper with a conclusion that sums up what you got from the reading. You might want to refer to your conclusions in relation to your expectations or come to some other conclusion or analysis about the text or experience in light of your feelings and reactions.