Marketing is based on the following principles:
- to produce what the consumer needs;
- enter the market not with the offer of goods and services, but with means of solving consumer problems;
- organize the production of goods after researching needs and demand;
- to concentrate efforts on achieving the final result of the production and export activities of the company;
- use the program-target method and an integrated approach to achieve the goals;
- apply the tactics and strategy of actively adapting the production of goods to market requirements with a simultaneous targeted impact on it in order to cover marketing with all the links in the chain of product promotion to the consumer;
- to orient the activities of the enterprise not on the immediate result, but on the long-term perspective of effective communications based on strategic planning and forecasting the behavior of goods on the market.
Hence, the marketing function includes an action that promotes the process of marketing and sales of products. The marketing function combines the following subfunctions:
- marketing research;
- policy planning in the field of production and product range;
- pricing; • product promotion;
- distribution of goods and sales;
- marketing management.
Depending on the scope, the following types of marketing are distinguished:
- marketing of services;
- organization marketing
– activities undertaken to create and maintain a favorable image of the organization;
- marketing of an individual
– an activity aimed at creating, maintaining or changing the behavior of the public in relation to specific individuals. For example, politicians use personal marketing to increase their popularity;
- place marketing
– an activity undertaken with the aim, for example, of attracting tourists to places of recreation, development of residential quarters;
- marketing ideas
– activities aimed at vaccinating, reducing the consumption of tobacco products, alcoholic beverages, etc.
From the point of view of phased internationalization, domestic and international marketing are distinguished. Internal marketing includes local marketing, when a company enters the local market with goods. National marketing involves the company going beyond the region where it is located, and operating throughout the country.
International marketing begins with simple export activities, then includes the creation of subsidiaries, branches, branches in foreign countries and ends with the creation of international corporations with branches scattered around the world. The highest point in the development of international marketing is global marketing, which involves the free movement of goods, labor and capital around the world.
By type of activity, they distinguish:
- financial marketing;
- innovative marketing (in the field of development and implementation of innovations, achievements of scientific and technological progress, know-how);
- industrial (in the field of production and meeting the demand for industrial products);
- marketing in the service sector.
The type of marketing is also determined by the state of demand. From this point of view, the following types of demand are distinguished: negative, hidden, falling, irregular, full-fledged, excessive, irrational and lack of demand.
In the book: “All about marketing: A collection of materials for heads of enterprises, economic and commercial services …” an initial definition is given of what are the “principles of marketing” in general – these are “the main features of marketing as a system of managing commercial and industrial activities”; it is determined what marketing principles are – they “reflect the essence of marketing, flow from its modern concept and suggest the effective achievement of marketing goals”; finally, the “basic marketing principles” themselves are also listed, to which the authors include:
- production based on an accurate knowledge of the needs of customers, the market situation and the real capabilities of the enterprise;
- the fullest satisfaction of the needs of the buyer, providing him with means or a set of means to solve specific problems (an alternative principle is the production of goods and services with the subsequent search for sales);
- the effective sale of products and services in certain markets in the planned volumes and on time;
- ensuring the long-term effectiveness (profitability) of the production and commercial activities of the enterprise, which implies a constant backlog of scientific and technical ideas and developments for the production of market novelty goods;
- the unity of the manufacturer’s strategy and tactics in order to actively adapt to the changing requirements of customers while influencing the formation and stimulation of needs.
So, if we analyze all the above definitions of “basic principles of marketing” from different authors, then, we see, these “principles of marketing” are not sufficiently uniform and well-established, and if we talk about the totality of the principles of marketing in general, then they are generally bear a contradictory meaning, acquire, if we take the “system context” – each author has a contradictory character.
Nevertheless, based on the proposed “system context” of the principles of marketing, it is not difficult to notice something common in the presented definitions of the totality of the “basic principles of marketing”, namely:
- the need for customer knowledge and their needs;
- the need to know the market situation in a certain sector (segment) of the market;
- the desire to satisfy the needs, needs and requirements of customers;
- the availability of production flexibility based on accurate knowledge of the target segment of “their” market; – the need for innovation (for example, the creation of a new product);
- the need for planning for various time horizons: building marketing programs in the long-, medium-, short-term aspects, planning for their “linking”;
- the need to implement the adopted marketing decisions (mainly short-term tasks to achieve the desired sales levels in various markets);
- promotion of goods and services;
- the implementation of various forms of information, persuasion or reminders of their goods, services, enterprise, brand, etc.
A sufficient number of “marketing principles” are being “recruited”, which must be somehow identified and interpreted. Consider another version of the “basic principles of marketing”:
- marketing research – market research (comprehensive and deep); in addition, the context of the study of the economic situation and the production and marketing capabilities of the enterprise is also used;
- segmentation – market segmentation;
- adaptation – flexible response to the requirements of active and potential demand;
- innovation – innovation, creation of a new product;
- planning – planning, building various marketing programs, long-, medium- and short-term planning of marketing activities of the company;
- promotion – (literal translation: “promotion with support”): a) promotion of goods and services; and also: b) any form of communication used by the enterprise for information, persuasion or reminder of its goods, services, enterprise, trademark, etc .;
- governing of market – “global” marketing management, which determines the “main course of events” in the activities of the company;
- management of market – marketing management, understood as the solution, mainly, of short-term tasks to achieve the desired sales levels in various markets (such as: what to sell, to whom to sell, why to sell, where and how to sell, when all this sell and how to manage all this movement of goods and services).
These principles were identified by the criterion: first, conducting specific empirical studies of consumers, and then launching the production itself based on marketing. In addition, when highlighting the principles of marketing, a criterion was used to analyze the logic of market activity of many Western firms.