First allow us discourse chapter II concerning matrimony, 2nd matrimony and belongings of adult females in KautilyasA Arthashastra: Book III, “ Refering Law ” . Kautilya explains the different types of matrimonies in that period. One among them is Asura, where big sum of money is received by a adult male to get married the adult females. He states that whenever the hubby is absent or dead and made no proviso for her care, the adult females can do usage of the jewellery belongings to feed their kids or to give it to her daughter-in-law. If the hubby is unrecorded, he excessively can utilize this belongings in the state of affairs of unsafe deaths or to utilize in the charitable Acts of the Apostless. If the hubby is dead, the adult females should be given her jewellery and money back that she owns and should besides have the balance sum that is given to the cat ‘s household for the matrimony. If she desires for a 2nd matrimony, juncture shall be given to her by her hubby or father-in-law or both. She will be eligible to give the belongings back by the father-in-law merely if she marries the 1 he chooses.
If the adult female has boies, she shall be non at autonomy in utilizing the belongings that she needs to give to her boies. Sons should have the belongings from her. If she claims that she needs the ownership of her ain belongings for the care of her boies, so she shall indue the belongings in the name of her boies. A adult female with more than one boy should conserve the belongings among her boies harmonizing to the status she received from her hubby. A adult female shall indue even the belongings that she has full powers of enjoyment in the name of her boies. If the adult female does non hold any kids for eight old ages, her hubby can get married another miss. If a adult female bears merely a dead kids, her hubby has to wait for 10 old ages before he can get married another. If a adult female gives birth merely to misss, her hubby should wait at least twelve old ages before he can get married another miss for the desire of boies. A mulct of 24 panas should be paid to the authorities if he violates any of the above regulations. A adult male can get married any figure of adult females for the desire of boies if he fulfills the above conditions.A A A
The chapter 2 from secondary beginning Women and The Law by Anjani Kant from Google books explain the Position of Women in Mauryan Period. It gives non merely kautilya ‘s point of position but besides Manu ‘s. The writer states that function of adult females in Mauryan society is important. It is apparent that adult females have alone power of giving birth. The importance of adult females in this respect is rather underrated. It states that it was lawful for the hubby to do usage of his married woman ‘s belongings against exigencies. She forfeits her belongings given by her hubby and father-in-law if she remarries any one against the consent of the latter. If, while her hubby is alive, she leaves him and remarries another, the 2nd hubby must return the belongings given to her by her first hubby and father-in-law. A widow devoid of issue may remarry the brother of her hubby with the consent of her father-in-law. A widow with a boy has to go through her belongings to him in instance she remarries.
While divorce was unthinkable, Kautilya allowed go forthing under certain fortunes. Manu allowed the hubby to go forth his married woman and remarry, but the adult female was denied this privilege. Harmonizing to Manu, “ a married woman who drinks spiritous spiritss who acts amorally, who shows hatred to her hubby, who suffers from an incurable disease or who wastes his belongings, may be left by her hubby who may replace her by another married woman. Kautilya, nevertheless was more rational and human by leting adult females equal rights with work forces. He allowed the adult female to disassociate her hubby under specified conditions. But Kautilya did non let divorce when either party was against it. Harmonizing to Manu, the sacred texts did non allow remarriage of widows, it is condemned by the learned as tantrum for animate beings. He contemplates the instance of a adult female who, abandoned by her hubby, or as a widow, of her ain agreement, marries a 2nd hubby, in which instance the boy Born of such matrimony was called progeny of lecherousness.
Second allow us discourse chapter III the Duty of a Wife in Kautilya’sA Arthashastra: Book III, “ Refering Law ” . Women, when 12 old ages old attain their bulk, and work forces when 16 old ages old. A adult female who hates her hubby, and who loves another, shall instantly return to her hubby both the gift and jewellery she has relieved from him, and let him to lie down with another adult female. A adult female, detesting her hubby, can non disassociate her hubby against his will. Nor can a adult male divorce his married woman against her will.
If a adult female engages herself in amative athleticss, or imbibing in the face of an order to the reverse, she shall be fined three panas. She shall pay a mulct of six panas for traveling out at daylight to athleticss or to see a adult female or eyeglassess. She will pay a mulct of 12 panas for traveling out to see another adult male or for athleticss. If a adult female goes out while her hubby is asleep or intoxicated, or if she shuts the door of the house against her hubby, she shall be fined 12 panas. If a adult male and a adult female make marks to each other with a position to animal enjoyment, or carry on secret preservation for the same intent, the adult female shall pay a mulct of 24 panas. For keeping preservation in leery topographic points ; whips may be substituted for mulcts.
The chapter 1 The Personality of Indian Women from secondary beginning Feminism and Indian Worlds by K.A. Kunjakkan discuss Manu ‘s point of position. Manu says that the married woman should be under the protection of her hubby. Bearing in head, the responsibilities of a married woman to her hubby to function him in this life and in other without any inquiry, his wants are her wants ; the married woman should ever be under the attention and protection of her hubby. Her hubby is her God. Since the married woman has no independent agencies of support and no capacity to gain her ain staff of life, she can non look after herself. She will hold to carry through her homely and household duties to herself, her hubby, her in-laws and to the society. Merely her hubby can touch her organic structure. No other individual can hold any contact with her. In that instance she will go impure and therefore unacceptable to her hubby, to the household, and to the society. She will hold to purely follow her spiritual and societal limitations and regulations. An Indian adult female ‘s function is defined with mention to her relation to others. First as a girl to her parents, 2nd as a married woman to her hubby and 3rd as a female parent to her boies.