As everyone knows, presents aircraft has become the most of import transit for everything. But the most of import is people who are going with aircraft. The lives of the people on the aircraft are of import. Each and every air hoses in this universe today, are seeking to convert people that they are the safest airliner, but the chief inquiry is, are they truly safe as what they mentioned? Aircraft care activities are by and large divided into two classs, which are, working on-aircraft and working off-aircraft. Working on-aircraft is when the technician or the applied scientist has to trouble-shoot, repaired, overhauled and altering parts. While working off-aircraft is when there is any parts on the aircraft been removed and need to be checked individually from the aircraft, for illustration aircraft battery cheque, which needs to be removed and taken to battery store in order to go on review or charging.
Normally, every approved care organisation must hold shop section that use to have and publish every parts, constituent and contraptions. For that ground, this shop section must follow with storage ordinances as stated in sanctioned care organisation demands such as EASA Part 145.A.42 and CAA CAP 562 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness Information and Procedures ( CAAIP ) recommendations.
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Aircraft is non like other transits, everything parts that being installed on the aircraft must be echt, neither like auto, it can utilize a sham parts in order to safe cost. But aircraft is nil near to that. If bogus or fake parts are being used on the aircraft, every individual lives on that aircraft are in hazard. But today, the intelligence of civil air power authorization and aircraft makers are working hard tracking down and extinguish forgery parts every bit good as following aircraft parts which are deficiencies of certification are all over the universe.
In this assignment a research, analyse, and critically measure of care patterns in a civil commercial aircraft environment, refering the usage and control of echt and non-genuine ( bogus ) spare parts for aircraft usage will be carried out.
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
These footings and definition is taken from FAA unapproved parts probe in conformity with the beginning from FAA ( 2011 ) and M. Mohamad ( 2003 ) .
BOGUS PARTS: Describe several parts classs, runing from decently
manufactured parts missing required certification to defective
and intentionally counterfeited parts.Under FAA ordinances, all aircraft
UNAPPROVED Partss: parts manufactured without FAA blessing ( specifically FARs Part 21.305 or repaired under the footings of Part 43 ) are unapproved
parts. This catchall categorization includes forgery parts, stolen parts, production overproductions sold without mandate, parts in exceedance of their clip bounds, approved parts improperly returned to service, and fraudulently marked parts, or parts which have no traceability.
Counterfeit PARTS: Partss made of inferior belongingss.
APPROVED PARTS: production criterions ( FAR 21.305 ) . They can be approved under a Parts Manufacturer Approval ( PMA ) , under Technical Standard Orders ( TSOS ) , in concurrence with typecertification processs through FAA disposal blessing, or by conforming to recognized Industry specifications.
LIFE-LIMITED AND TIME-EXPIRED PARTS: Aircraft parts that have predetermined service lives become “ timed out ” and no longer serviceable after transcending these prescribed bounds. Illegal usage of scrapped, time-expired critical parts, which do non hold to be destroyed anterior to disposal or
sale as bit, has been linked to several fatal aircraft accidents.
There few things an orgnanisation must look in earlier doing parts order. This is to forestall from doing order from bogus maker. The administration must do certain the portion from the maker is approved by FAA or EASA under 14 CFR Part 21 and EASA Part 21. An sanctioned portion maker must be certified as FAA-PMA ( FAA-Part Manufacturer Approval ) or EASA Production Organisation Approval ( POA ) . Harmonizing to the FAA web page under Suspected Unapproved Part ( SUP ) Program ( FAA, updated 19 December 2008 ) , the purchaser or any organisation who want to order parts can mention all the current approved PMA from the FAA database.
Harmonizing to CAA CAAIP Part 1 Leaflet 1-6 ( 2006:1 ) , unapproved aircraft parts or stuffs classified if:
Partss or stuffs non conform to an approved type design.
Partss or stuffs fail to conform to declared specification or accepted industry criterion ( standard parts ) .
Partss or stuffs marked by unauthorized beginning with false certification.
Partss non been maintain, overhauled or repaired in conformity with the demands of sanctioned airworthiness informations and/or statutory demands, or by individuals non authorised to execute and attest those maps.
Partss that straight shipped to the terminal user by makers, providers or distributers who do non keep appropriate production blessings and non been authorised to do the direct cargo to user by Type Certificates holder.
While for an sanctioned parts purchaser were advised and recommended to follow the lower limit procedures prior to put any order of aircraft parts which Harmonizing to FAA Advisory Circular AC 21-29C ( 2008:1 ) has mentioned the term of “ sanctioned parts are produced in conformity with the agencies outlined in Part 21 ” . The processs that the purchaser needs to follow are as below.
Identify the distributers and/or providers including their certification system and having review system meet the traceability of parts to an FAA approved beginning.
Evaluate and cross-checked to unfamiliar distributers and/or providers in order to forestall from seting the aircraft parts into hazard status.
Identify the important cut down of monetary value than the priced quoted by other distributers and/or providers of the same portion.
Identify the bringing agenda offered to other distributers and/or providers ( when the stock of a similar point is exhausted ) . Normally the fake maker offer shorter bringing.
Gross saless quotes or treatments from unidentified distributers that create the perceptual experience that an limitless supply of parts, constituents, or stuff is available to the terminal user.
A fake distributer and/or provider ‘s inability to supply confirming certification that the portion was produced in conformity to an FAA blessing, or inspected, repaired, overhauled, preserved, or altered in conformity with the CFR.
Any parts, constituents or contraptions that need to be released must has come with Statement of Conformity or Authorised Release Document which signed and stamped by an authorized forces from the sanctioned maker. Besides all the above, the sanctioned maker must besides include or hold Export Certificates of Airworthiness stated under 14 CFR Part 21 Subpart L – Export Airworthiness Approval by let go ofing FAA Form 8130-3 Airworthiness Release Tag for export.
Advices from the governments, have mentioned clearly to the purchaser to set excess cautiousness on taking the aircraft portion traders and before trying any purchase order. On 21st January 1992 the FAA had issued an Airworthiness Directives AD 91-24-14 ( Transport Airplane Directorate Designee Newsletter, 1992:10 ) , about the incident of Pratt & A ; Whitney JT8D series fanjet engine sing the fake 4-1/2 ” bearing seal spacer found by United Airline machinist during everyday care review. The FAA had find out that fake spacer was contributed to engine bearing seal impairment and do the engine failure which can set the flight hazard.
Therefore all the purchaser and portion makers must be alert on recommendation of the authorization in footings or avoiding fake portion or forge portion to be used on aircraft.
Choosing the sanctioned portion maker is one thing. The other important portion that any organisation or portion makers need to look into is the constituents bringing. Whenever order is placed, it must be distributed by the criterion messengers that have good repute in presenting goods. The administration or portion makers must do certain the constituents distributer or messenger is recommended by both parties in order to corroborate the security of the constituents bringing. In conformity with CAAIP ( 2009:6 ) Part 1 Leaflet 1-12 The Acceptance of Aircraft Component under point 5: Distributor, “ the aircraft constituent distributers are non required to be approved by the CAA ” . The constituents distributer besides can non raise the Authorized Release Document, non required to supply any proficient expertness to corroborate the position of the aircraft constituents.
So, any constituent received from the distributer, it is the storage section which is end user who is responsible to bespeak the Authorized Release Document that release by sanctioned administration and set up the acceptableness of the constituents itself before any installing of the portion to the aircraft can be made. There is besides Other thing that can go on such If the original distributer does n’t desire to go through the constituent ‘s paperss to stop user, if this happened it is acceptable if another distributer endorsed the original distributer ‘s certification harmonizing to mention figure given.
“ Authorized Release Documentation of the aircraft constituent is on file, Ref. No. # # # # and will be made available to the terminal user upon petition from that terminal user ” ( CAAIP Part 1 Leaflet 1-12, 2008:6 )
A farther advice by CAA CAAIP Part 1 Leaflet 1-6 ( 2006:1 ) , if the parts are delivered by direct cargo from maker, it has got to hold an mandate missive by the Type Certificates holder to make so. If any parts are shipped to the terminal user by direct bringing from the makers, who do non keep appropriate production blessing, it will so be declared as fake parts or unapproved parts.
In conformity to Advisory Circular 00-56A ( 2002:12 ) , the distributer must hold Distributor ‘s Certification Letter in order to better the eligibility of the aircraft parts and merchandises for installing to type-certificated merchandises. This administration is portion of FAA bureau that works to conform and scrutinize the quality system of the distributer conformity to FAA recommendation.
By making this, the security of the parts bringing will be achieved in order to cut down the fake portion use.
ACCEPTANCE OF PARTS
Following to the shop demands, the organisation must demo how they traveling to vouch that all the parts received are echt ( ICAT Module 10:63 ) . For that ground the organisation must guarantee all the parts are from approved beginning that has traceability and history. In 1992, harmonizing to the fake portion instances, FAA had mentioned to the air power communities to be alert on current issue in Aviation Maintenance Alerts ( FAA, updated on 25 April 2008 ) .
The intent of this care qui vive is to portion any information about the current care experiences particularly about the bogus parts use in order to better aeronautical merchandise lastingness, dependability and safety. Now yearss batch of bogus parts that looks similar to original parts. So the administration demand to be alert on this sort of state of affairs in order to do certain merely sanctioned parts are install or utilize on the aircraft.
As an sanctioned administration, there are two types of shop must be existed which are quarantine shop and bonded shop. Both storage Stationss must be separated in order to forestall from blending up the serviceable and unserviceable points. Further accounts of both shops are as below.
Bonded shop – In this storage country, all the parts are ready to be installed to
the aircraft and being monitored on its shelf life and eligibility. Some administration has placed the sanctioned parts under their ain storage mention. This manner is easy to maintain path the parts eligibility and all the paperss can be managed in a better manner. If any of the parts are issued from this storage country, it is the duty of the machinist or the applied scientist to look into the parts and appropriate paperss in order to corroborate its airworthiness before installed to the aircraft. This care pattern can assist cut down the bogus parts from being used.
Quarantine shop – All new stuffs which have been received from the distributer must be placed in the quarantine shop foremost, at which clip the shops inspectors will look into that all points are received. Below are the processs that need to be carried out by the shop inspectors.
The inspector must corroborate the specification and the drawing demands.
Inspector must inspect in order to guarantee the goods received are free from harm or corrosion
Inspector must besides detect that the points are received with sufficient clip left to enable the point to be stored for a sensible period in the instance of shelf life point
The shop inspector must guarantee the points received are accompanied by necessary airworthiness certification
When all these process has been carried out and the shop inspectors are satisfied, that the entrance spares are to the full airworthy they will so bring forth a good reception figure to the point for company internal designation and traceability. All points with the serviceable ticket are sent to the bonded shop. Partss which are considered to be airworthy will remain in quarantine shop until instructions are received for their handling.
INDENTIFY AND HANDLING BOGUS PARTS
Harmonizing to Federal Aviation Administration ( FAA ) system surveillance and analysis division, every administration or distributer should make processs before buying parts in order to establish qualified providers authorized to do or travel FAA approved parts. The undermentioned standards can assist place and test out possible SUPs providers:
1. Lowball monetary values – if the monetary value quoted or advertised is significantly lower than the monetary value from other providers of the same portion ;
2. Suspiciously fast service – if the bringing agenda for an out-of-stock portion is significantly shorter than from others ;
3. Data deficit – if the provider seems unable or unwilling to confirm conformance of the portion ;
4. Papertrail deficit – if the provider seems slow, or unable to document FAA blessing for the portion.
If any of these types of state of affairss arise, organisation or distributer should:
Inspect merchandise containers for harm, another provider ‘s name, or no markers at all ;
Crosscheck purchase orders with the bringing gross for proper portion figure or component history card ;
Develop a system for tracking the shelf or service life of parts so as non to unwittingly utilize a portion with an expired life bound ;
Verify that portion designation markers are n’t altered or otherwise tampered with – things like a consecutive figure stamped over, an improper label, a losing label or a consecutive figure stamped at a topographic point different than usual ;
Inspect parts for ocular defects or abnormalcies, such as altered or unusual surface coatings, the absence of, or fluctuation in, required plating, any grounds of anterior usage, new pigment, old abrasions, opposing, corrosion or any mark of an attempted fix ;
Audit your provider to guarantee they set up and keep the quality demands specified in the purchase order.
The CAA and FAA will interchange this study and work together in order to follow the unapproved makers. This study will back up the users to be more concern about the non-genuine parts besides assisting the governments to forestall from the non-genuine parts to be installed or used for aircraft.
FAA RULES AND REGULATIONS.
1. FAA Part 21 Section L – Export Airworthiness Approval
This blessing is issued for new or used aircraft manufactured harmonizing to Subpart F and G meet the airworthiness demands outlined in Subpart H. An export airworthiness blessing for an aircraft is issued in the signifier of an export certification of airworthiness. This certification does non authorise operation of that aircraft. The FAA prescribes the signifier and mode in which an export airworthiness blessing for an aircraft engine, propellor, or article is issued.
Under this subpart besides provide the duties for the exporters which all paperss specified must be forwarded to the state or legal power. The merchandises and articles must pack and continue as necessary in order to protect it against corrosion and harm during theodolite or storage and besides must be in effectual province on continuance of bringing.
2. Advisory Round 00-56A: Voluntary Industry Distributor Accreditation Program
This consultative round provides information about the system of accreditation of civil aircraft parts distributers by the FAA. The information in this AC has been revised in order to run into current alterations in regulative demands and industry patterns therefore to better the ability of certificated individual to set up the eligibility of parts and merchandises for installing on type-certificated merchandises.
Under this AC besides provide the guideline for the aircraft parts distributers to be accredited therefore cut downing the job of non-genuine aircraft parts in bringing system. All the commissioned distributers will be given a enfranchisement missive or certification approved by Accreditation Organisation.
3. Electronic usage of the Authorized Release Certificate, FAA Form 8130-3, Airworthiness Approval Tag
Harmonizing to FAA Order 8130.21G ( 2009:5-1 ) , under this subject the FAA provide counsel on credence and usage of the electronic exchange FAA Form 8130-3 usage of such electronic certification for aircraft merchandises and articles.
This electronic FAA Form 8130-3 and other matching EASA and TCCA signifiers offer several advantages over the current paper format. FAA besides provides information in processs for usage of this electronic 8130-3 Form. The authorized individual must follow all the guidelines and advise their geographic FAA office earlier implementing the electronic signifier harmonizing to chapter 2, 3 and 4 of this order. Basically the issues of the signifier must be in paper format in conformity with the appropriate chapter of this order.
This order besides provides sample of the necessary electronic 8130-3 Form as attached in the appendix.
Even though many preventative actions has been taken by the governments to remind portion makers and aircraft companies how unsafe bogus parts are, but still there are a batch of non echt parts being sold in the market. It is non merely the portion makers fault, but every bit good as the aircraft company, who is seeking to cut down cost on care services due to the economic system job. As a consequence they decided to purchase bogus or non echt parts from the portion maker. So, are all the aircraft in the universe are saved to go with? Are the riders lives or safety comes foremost? Or are the lone thing they can believe of is about losing money on utilizing genuine aircraft parts.