Convention on International Civil Aviation stated that an air power accident is defined as accidents occurence which takes topographic point between burden, unloaded, cab or tow activity from an airdrome with the purpose of flight until completed landing activity where the rider embarked at another airdrome, in which a individual is fatally or earnestly injured, aircraft harm or structural failure is losing or is wholly unaccessible [ 1, 2 ] . An occurence other than accidents associated with the operations that impacting the safety operation of the aircraft is called air power incident [ 3 ] . Airlines accidents rate are non safety evaluations because the accidents that happen are highly rare and, with high chance of being killed. There are many factors contibuted to the safety evaluation including accident history, care and operations processs, types of preparation plans, age of fleet and specific paths flown. Figure 1 shows the accidents and human deaths by stage of the flight.
Figure 1 [ 2 ] ( Beginning: Statistical Summary of Commercial Jet Airplane Accidents, 1959 – 2008, Boeing )
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Malaysia Airlines is at rate -240 % below mean accidents rate for ten old ages of informations from 2002 to 2011. However, the accident rates should non be used as the appraisal of that peculiar air hoses ‘s safety profile or future hazard of an accident [ 2 ] . There are three clang records for Malaysia Airlines every bit listed in table 1.
Aircraft Type / Registration
04 Dec 1977
Malaysia Airlines, Kampung Ladang, Malaysia
Boeing 737-2H6 9M-MBD
Human Error and Mechanical Problems
18 Dec 1983
Malaysia Airlines, Kuala Lumpur ( Subang, Malaysia )
Airbus A300B4-120 OY-KAA
15 Sept 1995
Malaysia Airlines, Tawau, Malaysia
Table 1 [ 4 ]
From table 1, the cause of accidents are due to human mistake and mechanical jobs. Although Malaysia Airlines accidents and human deaths rate is negative value, it does non intend that Malaysia Airlines system for safety is at highest specification ( miminum possibility of accidents to happen ) . Therefore, futher betterment in safety system of air hoses is needed to forestall accidents from happen because air traffic volume is expected to increase further in the hereafter. Establish and supply a safer and more efficient air traffic system is important.
The aim is to forestall occurence of air traffic accidents by accomplishing a society with no air traffic accidents by execution of air traffic organisation safety direction system.
Safety Management System ( SMS ) had been implemented in Malaysia Airlines started on 2011 which the SMS processes is embedded into the day-to-day end products of the concern units and the cardinal safety public presentation index is reviewed on a regular basis by the Board and Management in order to achieve optimum safety public presentation throughout the group [ 5 ] . SMS is a systematic and incorporate method for pull offing the safety Air Traffic Control ( ATC ) and the pilotage services of Nasional Airspace System ( NAS ) . Integrated SMS is introduced because an integrating is a systematic, expressed and pro-active procedure for pull offing safety which the operation, proficient, and human resource direction is integrated to accomplish safety operations with low operable hazard [ 6 ] . Malaysia Airlines embedded four key SMS processes which are safety policy, safety hazard direction, safety confidence and safety publicity [ 7, 8 ] . Figure 2 shows the general integrating of SMS cardinal procedures.
Figure 2 [ 7 ]
There are guidelines for implementing SMS and this paper summarized the guidelines. In general, SMS does give benefits in bettering on the bing degrees of air power safety in the visible radiation of the go oning growing of the industry. Positive safety civilization will be the cardinal demand for a great success of safety public presentation. The engagement of all stakeholders in Malaysia Airlines contributed whether the safety civilization is positive or negative which depending on how the safety is manage and conducted in the concern. Measuring the degree of safety civilization is important and can be measured via studies or by observations in safety-related work countries [ 9 ] .
Outline of the general criterion of excellencestarted with one system enabler which is safety civilization and a model of four constituents or procedures and 10 elements as shown in figure 3 and Table 2 shows the description of each four constituents.
Figure 3 [ 10 ]
Components / Procedures
Address organizational and single safety duties, safety aims towards driving the SMS.
Safety Risk Management
The procedure leverages informations and expertness to decently scope a jeopardy and them extenuate its hazard to an acceptable degree of safety.
The demands of administration to turn to safety coverage, probe and betterment, safety public presentation monitoring and operational safety studies and SMS audits.
Lessons originating from safety occurence probes are disseminated and all staff are actively encouraged to suggest solutions to place jeopardies and to better safety.
Table 2 [ 7, 10, 11 ]
SMS execution is non easy and Top Management demand to supervise the advancement. The tract started with induction, policy acceptance, public presentation, safety civilization constitution, ordinance approved and risk-based QA procedure execution. Figure 4 shows the tract for SMS execution and table 3 explain the description of each stage.
Figure 4 [ 10 ]
Plan and debut of SMS model into administration
Planing / Initial Implementation
SMS implemented at early phase but non yet achieve the regulative criterion
SMS model meet the regulative criterion
Pull offing and mensurating
SMS model is functionong and effectual ( Meeting the safety policy and aims )
Regular reappraisal by Safety Management
Table 3 [ 10 ]
Safety Directors play of import function to develop a phased program to enable the step-wise execution os SMS system elements. The stage attack conducted by Malaysia Airlines provides a model to program and document the administration activities towards safety uninterrupted betterment. This stage attack supports message from Global Aviation safet that the highest accomplishment for SMS execution is long-run procedure that must be deliberated utilizing step-wise mode.
Keeping the safety hazards at a minimal degree is Malaysia Airlines figured bass end in safety. Therefore, they keep making activities towards safety, unluckily non mentioned in this paper and necessitate farther treatment. Fleet refreshment programme and the company ‘s reorganization, a series of Change Management Processes, Fatique Risk Management System ( FRMS ) and Just Culture Policy and Practices are the safety activities conducted and were introduced in 2011 by Malaysia Airlines. Malaysia Airlines has the IOSA ( IATA Operational Safety Audit ) which compulsory safety criterion for all International Air Transport Association ( IATA ) bearers. The being of SMS in Malaysia Airlines is necessary for keeping and bettering the safety oparation, but dot non sufficient to vouch equal safety public presentation. If staff does non cognizant of SMS being, understand its rudimentss, and be motivated to utilize the SMS that is in topographic point or being developed, SMS execution in Malaysia Airlines will be a waste. SMS and safety civilization work inter-dependently, because a positive safety civilization will guarantee the advancement execution or keeping execution of SMS is traveling good [ 12 ] . Malaysia Airlines should concentrate more on keeping the SMS by constructing a Safety Culture that can assist reenforce the appropriate safety behavior towards more full-blown safety civilization and 2012, Malaysia Airline Safety Performance Corporate Culture is more towards developing safety civilization.
Many administrations implementing SMS plans and the clip taken for them to accomplish the safety civilization will take old ages. Study current model execution of SMS in other states air hoses and compare the model is needed so that Malaysia Airlines can develop new model to be implemented in their administration that consider the Malayan civilization, belief, concern scheme and etc.